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丝瓜Luffa aegyptiaca

时间:2013-11-11 08:00来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 丝瓜 学名( Scientific Name ): Luffa aegyptiaca P. Mill. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Luffa cylindrica (L.) M.Roem. Luffa subangulata Miq. Melothria touc
中文名(Chinese Name):丝瓜
学名(Scientific Name):Luffa aegyptiaca P. Mill.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Luffa cylindrica (L.) M.Roem.  Luffa subangulata Miq.  Melothria touchanensis H. Lév.  Momordica cylindrica L.  Bryonia cheirophylla Wall.  Cucumis pentandrus Roxb. ex Wight & Arn.  Luffa aegyptiaca var. leiocarpa (Naudin) Heiser & E.E. Schill.  Luffa aegyptiaca var. peramara F.M.Bailey  Luffa cylindrica var. insularum (A.Gray) Cogn.  Luffa cylindrica var. leiocarpa Naudin  Luffa cylindrica var. minima Naudin  Luffa fricatoria Donde  Luffa insularum A.Gray  Luffa leucosperma M.Roem.  Luffa pentandra Roxb.  Luffa petola Ser.  Luffa sylvestris Miq.  Momordica reticulata Salisb.  Poppya fabiana K.Koch  Turia cordata Forssk. ex J.F Gmel.  Turia cylindrica Forssk. ex J.F Gmel.  Turia sativa Forssk.
科属Family & Genus):葫芦科Cucurbitaceae丝瓜属Luffa  
形态特征Description):一年生攀援藤本;茎、枝粗糙,有棱沟,被微柔毛。卷须稍粗壮,被短柔毛,通常2-4歧。叶柄粗糙,长10-12厘米,具不明显的沟,近无毛;叶片三角形或近圆形,长、宽约10-20厘米,通常掌状5-7裂,裂片三角形,中间的较长,长8-12厘米,顶端急尖或渐尖,边缘有锯齿,基部深心形,弯缺深2-3厘米,宽2-2.5厘米,上面深绿色,粗糙,有疣点,下面浅绿色,有短柔毛,脉掌状,具白色的短柔毛。雌雄同株。雄花:通常15-20朵花,生于总状花序上部,花序梗稍粗壮,长12-14厘米,被柔毛;花梗长1-2厘米,花萼筒宽钟形,径0.5-0.9厘米,被短柔毛,裂片卵状披针形或近三角形,上端向外反折,长约0.8-1.3厘米,宽0.4-0.7厘米,里面密被短柔毛,边缘尤为明显,外面毛被较少,先端渐尖,具3脉;花冠黄色,辐状,开展时直径5-9厘米,裂片长圆形,长2-4厘米,宽2-2.8厘米,里面基部密被黄白色长柔毛,外面具3-5条凸起的脉,脉上密被短柔毛,顶端钝圆,基部狭窄;雄蕊通常5,稀3,花丝长6-8毫米,基部有白色短柔毛,花初开放时稍靠合,最后完全分离,药室多回折曲。雌花:单生,花梗长2-10厘米;子房长圆柱状,有柔毛,柱头3,膨大。果实圆柱状,直或稍弯,长15-30厘米,直径5-8厘米,表面平滑,通常有深色纵条纹,未熟时肉质,成熟后干燥,里面呈网状纤维,由顶端盖裂。种子多数,黑色,卵形,扁,平滑,边缘狭翼状。花果期夏、秋季。
分布(Distribution):我国南、北各地普遍栽培。也广泛栽培于世界温带、热带地区。云南南部有野生,但果较短小。
用途(Use):果为夏季蔬菜,成熟时里面的网状纤维称丝瓜络,可代替海绵用作洗刷灶具及家具;还可供药用,有清凉、利尿、活血、通经、解毒之效。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 19 Page 34, 35
Luffa aegyptiaca Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. Luffa no. 1. 1768.
丝瓜 si gua| Cucurbitaceae  | Luffa
Momordica luffa Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1009. 1753; Luffa cylindrica (Linnaeus) M. Roemer; M. cylindrica Linnaeus.
Stem and branches scabrous, sulcate-angular, puberulent. Tendrils rather robust, usually 2-4-fid. Petiole 10-12 cm, scabrous, subglabrous; leaf blade triangular or suborbicular, 10-20 × 10-20 cm, often palmately 5-7-lobed; lobes triangular, median lobe 8-12 cm, base deeply cordate, margin dentate, apex acute or acuminate; sinus 2-3 cm deep, 2-2.5 cm wide. Male flowers usually 15-20 in a raceme; peduncle somewhat robust, 12-14 cm, pubescent; pedicels 1-2 cm; calyx broadly campanulate, 5-9 mm, puberulent; segments reflexed above, ovate-lanceolate or subtriangular, 8-13 × 4-7 mm, densely puberulent, 3-veined, apex acuminate; corolla yellow, rotate, 5-9 cm in diam.; segments oblong, 2-4 × 2-2.8 cm, inside densely yellow-white villous, base attenuate, apex rounded-obtuse. Stamens usually 5, rarely 3; filaments 6-8 mm, base white pubescent, connate at first, later free. Female flowers solitary; pedicel 2-10 cm; ovary narrowly cylindric, puberulent; stigmas expanded. Fruit cylindric, straight or slightly curved, 15-45 × 3-6 cm, smooth, ecostate, inside strongly fibrous when mature. Seeds usually black, ovate, smooth or very sparingly tuberculate, margin slightly winged. Fl. and fr. summer and autumn.
Commonly cultivated in China [widely cultivated throughout tropical and temperate regions].
The fruit is eaten as a vegetable.
 




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