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芥菜Brassica juncea

时间:2013-11-11 08:13来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 芥菜 学名( Scientific Name ): Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Brassica juncea var. gracilis Tsen et Lee Brassica juncea var. mu
中文名(Chinese Name):芥菜
学名(Scientific Name):Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Brassica juncea var. gracilis Tsen et Lee  Brassica juncea var. multisecta L. H. Bailey  Brassica juncea var. crispifolia L. H. Bailey  Brassica juncea var. foliosa L. H. Bailey  Brassica taquetii H. Lév.  Brassica napiformis var. multisecta (L. H. Bailey) A. I. Baranov  Brassica juncea var. japonica (Thunb.) L. H. Bailey  Brassica argri H. Lév.  Raphanus junceus (L.) Crantz  Sinapis lanceolata DC.  Sinapis juncea L.  Brassica juncea var. integrifolia (Stokes) Sinskaya  Brassica juncea var. longidens L. H. Bailey  Brassica juncea var. longipes M. Tsen et S. H. Lee  Brassica juncea var. rugosa (Roxb.) N. Tsen et S. N. Lee  Brassica juncea var. strumata N. Tsen et S. N. Lee  Brassica juncea var. subintegrifolia Sinskaya  Brassica willdenowii Boiss.  Sinapis cernua Thunb.  Sinapis chinensis var. integrifolia Stokes  Sinapis cuneifolia Roxb.  Sinapis japonica Thunb.  Sinapis patens Roxb.  Sinapis rugosa Roxb.  Brassica jnuncea var. cumeifolis (Roxb.) Kitam.  Brassica besseriana Andrz. ex Trautv.  Brassica chenopodiifolia Sennen & Pau  Brassica timoriana (DC.) F. Muell.  Sinapis abyssinica A. Braun  Sinapis timoriana DC.  Brassica integrifolia var. timoriana (DC.) O.E.Schulz  Brassica juncea var. aspera (Prain) O.E.Schulz  Brassica juncea var. chinensis (L.) N.Busch  Brassica arvensis var. juncea (L.) Kuntze  Brassica cernua var. chirimenna Makino  Brassica juncea var. elata (Prain) O.E.Schulz  Brassica juncea var. laevis (Prain) O.E.Schulz  Brassica juncea var. oleifera Prain  Brassica willdenovii Boiss.  Crucifera juncea E.H.L.Krause  Rhamphospermum volgense Andrz. ex Rupr.  Sinapis brassicata L.  Sinapis oleracea C.Presl  Sinapis tenella Moench 
科属Family & Genus):十字花科Cruciferae芸苔属Brassica
形态特征(Description):一年生草本,高30-150厘米,常无毛,有时幼茎及叶具刺毛,带粉霜,有辣味;茎直立,有分枝。基生叶宽卵形至倒卵形,长15-35厘米,顶端圆钝,基部楔形,大头羽裂,具2-3对裂片,或不裂,边缘均有缺刻或牙齿,叶柄长3-9厘米,具小裂片;茎下部叶较小,边缘有缺刻或牙齿,有时具圆钝锯齿,不抱茎;茎上部叶窄披针形,长2.5-5厘米,宽4-9毫米,边缘具不明显疏齿或全缘。总状花序顶生,花后延长;花黄色,直径7-10毫米;花梗长4-9毫米;萼片淡黄色,长圆状椭圆形,长4-5毫米,直立开展;花瓣倒卵形,长8-10毫米,长4-5毫米。长角果线形,长3-5.5厘米,宽2-3.5毫米,果瓣具1突出中脉;喙长6-12毫米;果梗长5-15毫米。种子球形,直径约1毫米,紫褐色。花期3-5月,果期5-6月。
分布(Distribution):全国各地栽培。
用途(Use):叶盐腌供食用;种子及全草供药用,能化痰平喘,消肿止痛;种子磨粉称芥末,为调味料;榨出的油称芥子油;本种为优良的蜜源植物。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 8 Page 20      
Brassica juncea (Linnaeus) Czernajew, Conspect. Fl. Chark. 8. 1859.
芥菜 jie cai | Brassicaceae  | Brassica
Herbs annual, (20-)30-100(-180) cm tall, pubescent or rarely glabrous, glaucous or not, sometimes with fleshy taproots. Stems erect, branched above. Basal and lowermost cauline leaves long petiolate; petiole (1-)2-8(-15) cm; leaf blade ovate, oblong, or lanceolate in outline, (4-)6-30(-80) × 1.5-15(-28) cm, lyrate-pinnatifid or pinnatisect; terminal lobe ovate, repand, dentate, or incised; lateral lobes 1-3 on each side of midvein, much smaller than terminal lobe, crisped incised, dentate, repand, or entire. Upper cauline leaves petiolate or subsessile, oblanceolate, oblong, lanceolate, or linear, to 10 × 5 cm, base cuneate to attenuate, margin entire or repand, rarely dentate. Fruiting pedicels straight, divaricate, (0.5-)0.8-1.5(-2) cm. Sepals oblong, (3.5-)4-6(-7) × 1-1.7 mm, spreading. Petals yellow, (6.5-)8-11(-13) × 5-7.5 mm, ovate or obovate, apex rounded or emarginate; claw 3-6 mm. Filaments 4-7 mm; anthers oblong, 1.5-2 mm. Fruit linear, (2-)3-5(-6) cm × 3-4(-5) mm, terete or slightly 4-angled, sessile, divaricate or ascending; valvular segment (1.5-)2-4.5 cm, 6-15(-20)-seeded per locule; valves with a prominent midvein, slightly torulose; terminal segment conical, (4-)5-10(-15) mm, seedless; style often obsolete. Seeds dark to light brown or gray, globose, 1-1.7 mm in diam., minutely reticulate. Fl. Mar-Jun, fr. Apr-Jul. 2n = 36*.
Fields, waste places, roadsides. Cultivated throughout China, sometimes naturalized especially in SW China [widely cultivated and naturalized elsewhere].
Variation in the basal leaf morphology of Brassica juncea is tremendous, and minor variants have been recognized at specific, subspecific, and varietal ranks. All these "taxa" have 2n = 36, and they can be readily crossed and produce fully fertile offspring. Seven varieties and three species were recognized in FRPS. Of these, only three major types are recognized here as varieties. Brassica juncea var. megarrhiza and B. napiformis represent one taxon (var. napiformis), while B. juncea var. tumida is quite distinct in leaf morphology. Both varieties are recognized here. The other varieties, which are based solely on the type of leaf margin, are reduced to the synonymy of var. juncea. These include var. gracilis (margin doubly serrate or incised), var. multisecta (margin with linear or filiform lobes), var. foliosa (margin sinuate-dentate), var. crispifolia (margin sharply dentate or incised), and var. multiceps (margin unlobed, slightly incised, or irregularly doubly serrate). Brassica integrifolia was described from European plants of B. juncea that became naturalized in St. Croix, an island in the Caribbean Sea. It is said to differ from B. juncea in having undivided leaves and smaller fruit, but these alleged differences are unrealistic, and B. integrifolia does not merit any taxonomic status.
 




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