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四棱豆Psophocarpus tetragonolobus

时间:2018-08-12 19:45来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):四棱豆 学名( Scientific Name ): Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC. 英文名( English Common Name ): winged bean 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Botor tetragonolobus (L.) Kuntze Dolichos t
中文名(Chinese Name):四棱豆
学名(Scientific Name):Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.
英文名(English Common Name):winged bean
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Botor tetragonolobus (L.) Kuntze  Dolichos tetragonolobus L.  Dolichos ovatus Graham  Botor tetragonoloba (L.) Kuntze 
科属(Family & Genus):豆科(Leguminosae)四棱豆属
形态特征(Description):一年生或多年生攀援草本。茎长2-3米或更长,具块根。叶为具3小叶的羽状复叶;叶柄长,上有深槽,基部有叶枕;小叶卵状三角形,长4-15厘米,宽3.5-12厘米,全缘,先端急尖或渐尖,基部截平或圆形;托叶卵形至披针形,着生点以下延长成形状相似的距,长0.8-1.2厘米。总状花序腋生,长1-10厘米,有花2-10朵;总花梗长5-15厘米;小苞片近圆形,直径2.5-4.5毫米;花萼绿色,钟状,长约1.5厘米;旗瓣圆形,直径约3.5厘米,外淡绿,内浅蓝,顶端内凹,基部具附属体,翼瓣倒卵形,长约3厘米,浅蓝色,瓣柄中部具丁字着生的耳,龙骨瓣稍内弯,基部具圆形的耳,白色而略染浅蓝;对旗瓣的1枚雄蕊基部离生,中部以上和其它雄蕊合生成管,花药同形;子房具短柄,无毛,胚珠多颗,花柱长,弯曲,柱头顶生,柱头周围及下面被毛。荚果四棱状,长10-25(-40)厘米,宽2-3.5厘米,黄绿色或绿色,有时具红色斑点,翅宽0.3-1厘米,边缘具锯齿;种子8-17颗,白色,黄色,棕色,黑色或杂以各种颜色,近球形,直径0.6-1厘米,光亮,边缘具假种皮。果期10-11月。
分布(Distribution):原产地可能是亚洲热带地区,现亚洲南部、大洋洲、非洲等地均有栽培。
用途(Use):本种的嫩叶、嫩荚可作蔬菜,块根亦可食;种子富含蛋白质。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 240
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (Linnaeus) Candolle, Prodr. 2: 403. 1825.
四棱豆 si leng dou | Fabaceae  | Psophocarpus
Dolichos tetragonolobus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 2: 1162. 1759; Botor tetragonolobus (Linnaeus) Kuntze.
Herbs, annual or perennial, climbing, with tubers. Stems 2-3 m or more, glabrous. Stipules dorsifixed, ovate to lanceo­late, 0.8-1.2 cm; petiole sulcate; leaflets ovate-deltoid, 4-15 × 3.5-12 cm, base truncate or rounded, apex acute or acuminate. Racemes axillary, 1-10 cm, 2-12-flowered; peduncles 5-15 cm; bracteoles suborbicular, 2.5-4.5 mm in diam. Calyx campanulate, ca. 1.5 cm. Standard green outside, pale blue inside, ca. 3.5 cm in diam., base appendaged, apex emarginate; wings pale blue, ca. 3 cm, with T-shaped auricle at middle of claw; keel white tinged with pale blue, slightly incurved with rounded auricle at base. Legumes yellow-green or green, sometimes with red spots, tetragonal, 10-25(-40) × 2-3.5 cm, wings 0.3-1 cm wide with serrate margins. Seeds 8-17, white, yellow, brown, black, or variegated, subglobose, 0.6-1 cm in diam., shining, margin arillate. Fr. Oct-Nov.
Cultivated. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [native perhaps to tropical Asia; cultivated throughout the tropics].
This species is used for food; parts are eaten as vegetables.




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