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无花果Ficus carica

TAG标签: 桑科 Moraceae Ficus 榕属
时间:2013-10-16 21:25来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):无花果 学名( Scientific Name ): Ficus carica L. 英文名( English Common Name ): edible fig 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名 ( Synonym ): Caprificus insectifera Gasp. Caprificus leucocarpa Gasp. Caprifi
中文名(Chinese Name):无花果
学名(Scientific Name):Ficus carica L.
英文名(English Common Name):edible fig
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名Synonym):Caprificus insectifera Gasp.  Caprificus leucocarpa Gasp.  Caprificus oblongata Gasp.  Caprificus pedunculata (Miq.) Gasp.  Caprificus rugosa (Miq.) Gasp.  Caprificus sphaerocarpa Gasp.  Ficus albescens Miq.  Ficus burdigalensis Poit. & Turpin  Ficus caprificus Risso  Ficus carica var. caprificus Risso  Ficus carica var. domestica Czern. & Rav.  Ficus carica var. riparium Hausskn.  Ficus colchica Grossh.  Ficus colombra Gasp.  Ficus deliciosa Gasp.  Ficus dottata Gasp.  Ficus kopetdagensis Pachom.  Ficus hypoleuca Gasp.  Ficus hyrcana Grossh.  Ficus neapolitana Miq.  Ficus pachycarpa Gasp.  Ficus polymorpha Gasp.  Ficus rugosa Miq.  Ficus praecox Gasp.  Ficus regina Miq.  Ficus silvestris Risso
科属Family & Genus):桑科(Moraceae)榕属
形态特征Description):落叶灌木,高3-10米,多分枝;树皮灰褐色,皮孔明显;小枝直立,粗壮。叶互 生,厚纸质,广卵圆形,长宽近相等,10-20厘米,通常3-5裂,小裂片卵形,边缘具 不规则钝齿,表面粗糙,背面密生细小钟乳体及灰色短柔毛,基部浅心形,基生侧脉3- 5条,侧脉5-7对;叶柄长2-5厘米,粗壮;托叶卵状披针形,长约1厘米,红色。雌 雄异株,雄花和瘿花同生于一榕果内壁,雄花生内壁口部,花被片4-5,雄蕊3,有时 1或5,瘿花花柱侧生,短;雌花花被与雄花同,子房卵圆形,光滑,花柱侧生,柱头2 裂,线形。榕果单生叶腋,大而梨形,直径3-5厘米,顶部下陷,成熟时紫红色或黄色, 基生苞片3,卵形;瘦果透镜状。花果期5-7月。
 
分布(Distribution):原产地中海沿岸,分布于土耳其至阿富汗。我国南北均有栽培。
用途(Use):新鲜幼果及鲜叶治痔疗效良好。榕果味甜可食或作蜜饯,又可作药用;也供庭园观 赏。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 5 Page 52
Ficus carica Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1059. 1753.
无花果 wu hua guo | Moraceae  | Ficus
Shrubs, 3-10 m tall, many branched. Bark grayish brown, distinctly lenticellate. Branchlets straight, strong. Stipules red, ovate-lanceolate, ca. 1 cm. Leaves alternate; petiole strong, 2-5 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate, usually with 3-5 ovate lobes, 10-20 × 10-20 cm, thickly papery, abaxially densely covered with small cystoliths and short gray pubescence, adaxially scabrous, base ± cordate, margin irregularly toothed; basal lateral veins 2-4, secondary veins 5-7 on each side of midvein. Figs axillary on normal leafy shoots, solitary, purplish red to yellow when mature, pear-shaped, large, 3-5 cm in diam., apical pore concave, sessile; involucral bracts ovate. Male flowers: near apical pore; calyx lobes 4 or 5; stamens (1 or)3(-5). Gall flowers: style lateral, short. Female flowers: calyx lobes 4 or 5; ovary ovoid, smooth; style lateral; stigma 2-branched, linear. Achenes lenslike. Fl. and fr. May-Jul.
Cultivated. throughout China [native to the Mediterranean region eastward to Afghanistan].
This species was introduced to China during the Tang Dynasty (618–906 CE) and is grown particularly in Xinjiang for its edible fruit.




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