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面包树Artocarpus altilis

时间:2013-10-16 21:29来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):面包树 学名( Scientific Name ): Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg 英文名( English Common Name ): breadfruit 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 面包果树 异名( Synonym ): Artocarpus incisa (Thunb.) Linn.
中文名(Chinese Name):面包树
学名(Scientific Name):Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg
英文名(English Common Name):breadfruit
别名(Chinese Common Name):面包果树
异名(Synonym):Artocarpus incisa (Thunb.) Linn. f.  Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg  Sitodium altile Parkinson  Radermachia incisa Thunb.  Artocarpus incisus (Thunb.) L. f. 
科属(Family & Genus):桑科(Moraceae)波罗蜜属
 
形态特征(Description):常绿乔木,高10-15米;树皮灰褐色,粗厚。叶大,互生,厚革质,卵形至卵状椭 圆形,长10-50厘米,成熟之叶羽状分裂,两侧多为3-8羽状深裂,裂片披针形,先 端渐尖,两面无毛,表面深绿色,有光泽,背面浅绿色,全缘,侧脉约10对;叶柄长8- 12厘米;托叶大,披针形或宽披针形,长10-25厘米,黄绿色,被灰色或褐色平贴柔毛。 花序单生叶腋,雄花序长圆筒形至长椭圆形或棒状,长7-30(-40)厘米,黄色;雄花 花被管状,被毛,上部2裂,裂片披针形,雄蕊1枚,花药椭圆形,雌花花被管状,子 房卵圆形,花柱长,柱头2裂,聚花果倒卵圆形或近球形,长宽比值为1-4,长15-30 厘米,直径8-15厘米,绿色至黄色,表面具圆形瘤状凸起,成熟褐色至黑色,柔软,内 面为乳白色肉质花被组成;核果椭圆形至圆锥形,直径约25毫米。栽培的很少核果或无核果。
分布(Distribution):原产太平洋群岛及印度、菲律宾、马来群岛。我国引种栽培。
用途(Use):木材质轻软而粗,可作建筑用材…,果实为热带主要食品之一。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 5 Page 31
Artocarpus communis J. R. Forster & G. Forster, Char. Gen. Pl. 51. 1775.
面包树 mian bao shu| Moraceae  | Artocarpus
Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg; A. incisus (Thunberg) Linnaeus f.; Radermachia incisa Thunberg; Sitodium altile Parkinson.
Trees 10-15 m tall, evergreen. Bark grayish brown, thick. Branchlets 0.5-1.5 cm thick. Stipules amplexicaul, lanceolate to broadly lanceolate, 10-25 cm, pubescence yellowish green, gray, or brown, hairs bent. Leaves spirally arranged; petiole 8-12 cm; leaf blade ovate to ovate-elliptic, 10-50 cm, thickly leathery, glabrous, abaxially pale green, adaxially dark green and shiny, margin entire, apex acuminate; secondary veins 10 on each side of midvein. Leaves on mature trees pinnately lobed or pinnatipartite; lobes or segments 3-8, lanceolate. Inflorescences axillary, solitary. Male inflorescences yellow, narrowly cylindric, narrowly ellipsoid, or clavate, 7-30(-40) cm. Male flowers: calyx tubular, apically 2-lobed, pubescent, lobes lanceolate; anthers elliptic. Female flowers: calyx tubular; ovary ovoid; style long, apically 2-branched. Fruiting syncarp green to yellow, brown to black when mature, obovoid to ± globose, 15-30 × 8-15 cm, tuberculate; pericarp soft; mesocarp of milky white fleshy calyx. Drupes ellipsoid to conic, ca. 2.5 cm in diam.
Cultivated;; Low elevations. Hainan, Taiwan [probably native to tropical Asia; now cultivated throughout the tropics].
Plants known as breadfruit produce few or no seeds and are a staple item of the diet in some tropical parts of the world, most notably the Pacific Islands.
 




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