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木耳菜Basella alba

时间:2013-07-17 07:32来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):木耳菜 学名( Scientific Name ): Basella alba L. 英文名( English Common Name ): Ceylon spinach 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 落葵、藤菜 异名( Synonym ): Basella rubra L.;Basella alba var. subcordata Has






中文名(Chinese Name):木耳菜
学名(Scientific Name):Basella alba L.
英文名(English Common Name):Ceylon spinach
别名(Chinese Common Name):落葵、藤菜
异名(Synonym):Basella rubra L.;Basella alba var. subcordata Hassk.;Basella alba var. subrotunda Moq.;Basella cananifolia Buch.-Ham. ex Wall.;Basella cordifolia Lam.;Basella crassifolia Salisb.;Basella japonica Burm.f.;Basella lucida L.;Basella nigra Lour.;Basella ramosa J.Jacq. ex Spreng.;Basella rubra var. virescens Moq.;Basella volubilis Salisb.;Gandola alba Rumph. ex L.;Gandola nigra (Lour.) Raf.;Gandola rubra Rumph. ex L.
科属(Family & Genus):落葵科(Basellaceae)落葵属
形态特征(Description):一年生缠绕草本。茎长可达数米,无毛,肉质,绿色或略带紫红色。叶片卵形或近圆形,长3-9厘米,宽2-8厘米,顶端渐尖,基部微心形或圆形,下延成柄,全缘,背面叶脉微凸起;叶柄长1-3厘米,上有凹槽。穗状花序腋生,长3-15 (-20) 厘米;苞片极小,早落;小苞片2,萼状,长圆形,宿存;花被片淡红色或淡紫色,卵状长圆形,全缘,顶端钝圆,内摺,下部白色,连合成筒;雄蕊着生花被筒口,花丝短,基部扁宽,白色,花药淡黄色;柱头椭圆形。果实球形,直径5-6毫米,红色至深红色或黑色,多汁液,外包宿存小苞片及花被。花期5-9月,果期7-10月。
分布(Distribution):产亚洲热带地区,我国南北有种植。
用途(Use):叶含有多种维生素和钙、铁,栽培作蔬菜,也可观赏。全草供药用,为缓泻剂,有滑肠、散热、利大小便的功效;花汁有清血解毒作用,能解痘毒,外敷治痈毒及乳头破裂。果汁可作无害的食品着色剂。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 5 Page 445
Basella alba Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 272. 1753.
落葵 luo kui
Basella rubra Linnaeus. | Basellaceae  | Basella
Herbs annual. Stems green or red, to 10 m, fleshy, glabrous. Petiole 1-3 cm; leaf blade ovate or rotund, 3-9 × 2-8 cm, base shallowly cordate or rotund, margin entire, apex acuminate. Spikes 3-15(-20) cm. Bracteoles oblong. Perianth red-dish or purplish, ovate-oblong, 3-4 mm, base pale, margin entire, apex blunt. Filaments white; anthers yellowish. Utricle red to dark red or black, 5-6 mm in diam., containing violet juice. Fl. May-Sep, fr. Jul-Oct.
Widely cultivated. in China, naturalized in S China [pantropical].
Sometimes regarded as native, this species has long been cultivated as a vegetable and an ornamental. The juice is harmless and used as a food coloring. The plants are used medicinally.
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