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芋头Colocasia esculenta

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中文名 ( Chinese Name ): 芋头 学名 ( Scientific Name ): Colocasia esculenta (Linn.) Schott 英文名 ( English Common Name ): coco yam 别名 ( Chinese Common Name ): 异名 ( Synonym ): Colocasia kotoensis Hayata;Colocasia formosa




中文名Chinese Name):芋头
学名Scientific Name):Colocasia esculenta (Linn.) Schott
英文名English Common Name):coco yam
别名Chinese Common Name):
异名Synonym):Colocasia kotoensis Hayata;Colocasia formosana Hayata;Arum esculentum L.;Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum (Schott et Endl.) F. T. Hubb. et Rehder;Arum chinense L.;Calla gaby Blanco;Caladium esculentum (L.) Vent.;Colocasia vera Haskarl;Arum peltatum Lam.;Colocasia peltata (Lam.) Samp.;Colocasia tonoimo Nakai;Steudnera virosa (Roxb.) Prain;Zantedeschia virosa (Roxb.) K.Koch;Arum lividum Salisb.;Arum nymphaeifolium (Vent.) Roxb.;Aron colocasium (L.) St.-Lag.;Arum colocasioides Desf.;Leucocasia esculenta (L.) Nakai;Caladium acre R.Br.;Caladium colocasioides (Desf.) Brongn.;Caladium glycyrrhizum Fraser;Caladium nymphaeifolium Vent.;Calla virosa Roxb.;Colocasia acris (R.Br.) Schott;Colocasia aegyptiaca Samp.;Colocasia colocasia (L.) Huth;Colocasia euchlora K.Koch & Linden;Colocasia fontanesii Schott;Colocasia gracilis Engl.;Colocasia himalensis Royle;Colocasia neocaledonica Van Houtte;Colocasia nymphaeifolia (Vent.) Kunth;Colocasia violacea (Desf.) auct.;Colocasia virosa (Roxb.) Kunth;Colocasia vulgaris Raf.;Alocasia dussii Dammer; Alocasia illustris W.Bull;Colocasia antiquorum f. acuatica Makino;Colocasia antiquorum f. eguimo Makino;Colocasia antiquorum f. oyasetage Makino;Colocasia antiquorum f. purpurea Makino;Colocasia antiquorum f. yamamotoi Makino;Colocasia antiquorum var. multifolia Makino;Colocasia antiquorum var. patens Makino;Colocasia antiquorum var. rosea Makino;Colocasia esculenta f. ebiimo Makino;Colocasia esculenta f. rotundifolia Makino;Colocasia esculenta var. aquatilis Hassk.;Colocasia antiquorum var. globulifera Engl. & K.Krause;Colocasia esculenta var. globulifera (Engl. & K.Krause) R.A.Young;Colocasia esculenta var. illustris (W.Bull) A.F.Hill;Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta (L.) Schott;Colocasia esculenta var. euchlora (K.Koch & Linden) A.F.Hill;Colocasia esculenta var. acris (R.Br.) A.F.Hill;Colocasia esculenta var. nymphaeifolia (Kunth) A.F.Hill;Colocasia antiquorum var. euchlora (K.Koch & Linden) Schott;Colocasia antiquorum var. fontanesii (Schott) Schott;Colocasia antiquorum var. acris (R.Br.) Schott;Colocasia esculenta var. typica A.F.Hill;Colocasia antiquorum var. nymphaeifolia (Vent.) Engl.;Colocasia antiquorum var. illustris (W.Bull) Engl.;Colocasia esculenta var. fontanesii (Schott) A.F.Hill;Colocasia antiquorum var. aquatilis (Hassk.) Engl. & K. Krause
科属Family & Genus):天南星科(Araceae)芋属
形态特征Description):湿生草本。块茎通常卵形,常生多数小球茎,均富含淀粉。叶2-3枚或更多。叶柄长于叶片,长20-90厘米,绿色,叶片卵状,长20-50厘米,先端短尖或短渐尖,侧脉4对,斜伸达叶缘,后裂片浑圆,合生长度达1/2-1/3,弯缺较钝,深3-5厘米,基脉相交成30度角,外侧脉2-3,内侧1-2条,不显。花序柄常单生,短于叶柄。佛焰苞长短不一,一般为20厘米左右:管部绿色,长约4厘米,粗2.2厘米,长卵形;檐部披针形或椭圆形,长约17厘米,展开成舟状,边缘内卷,淡黄色至绿白色。肉穗花序长约10厘米,短于佛焰苞:雌花序长圆锥状,长3-3.5厘米,下部粗1.2厘米;中性花序长约3-3.3厘米,细圆柱状;雄花序圆柱形,长4-4.5厘米,粗7毫米,顶端骤狭;附属器钻形,长约1厘米,粗不及1毫米。花期2-4月(云南)至8-9月(秦岭)。
分布(Distribution):原产我国和印度、马来半岛等热带地区,我国南北均有栽培。
用途(Use):块茎可食:可作羹菜,也可代粮或制淀粉,自古视为重要的粮食补助或救荒作物。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 23 Page 73, 74
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott in Schott & Endlicher, Melet. Bot. 18. 1832.
芋 yu| Araceae  | Colocasia
Arum esculentum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 965. 1753; A. colocasia Linnaeus; Caladium colocasia (Linnaeus) W. Wight; C. esculentum (Linnaeus) Ventenat; Calla gaby Blanco; Colocasia antiquorum Schott var. esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott ex Seemann; C. formosana Hayata; C. konishii Hayata; C. neocaledonica Van Houtte.
Rhizome vertical to horizontal, tuberous, 3-5 cm or more (up to 15 cm) in diam. Stolons long or absent. Leaves 2 or 3 or more; petiole green, 25-80 cm, sheathing for 1/3-2/3 length; leaf blade adaxially matte waxy-glaucous and water-shedding (water sometimes forming "mercury droplets"), oblong-ovate to suborbicular, 13-45 × 10-35 cm, base shallowly cordate (sinus 1-4 cm), apex broadly and shortly cuspidate. Peduncle usually solitary, 16-26 cm. Spathe tube green, 3.5-5 × 1.2-1.5 cm; limb open proximally, cream-colored to golden yellow, lanceolate or elliptic, 10-19 × 2-5 cm, apex acuminate. Spadix: female zone conic, 3-3.5 × ca. 1.2 cm; ovary 1-3 mm in diam.; stigma subsessile, narrower than apex of ovary; sterile zone narrowly cylindric, 3-3.3 cm; sterile flowers (pistils) seen from above elongate, ca. 0.5 mm in diam.; male zone cylindric, 4-6.5 cm × ca. 7 mm; appendix narrowly conic, 15-45 × ca. 2 mm. Berry green, ca. 4 mm. Seeds few; synandria ca. 1 mm high, ca. 0.8 mm in diam. Fl. Feb-Apr (Yunnan), or Aug-Sep (Qin Ling area). 2n = 26, 28, 30, 36, 38, 42, 44, 46, 48, 52, 58, 84, 116.
Widely cultivated usually near farmhouses or in water fields; also naturalized or perhaps native in wet places in forests, valleys, swamps, wastelands, and at watersides. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [widely cultivated in tropics and subtropics].
This very variable species is widely cultivated throughout the tropics, and many wild or naturalized clones are found in S Asia, Malesia, and the Pacific islands. The spathes, spadices, and spadix appendixes vary considerably, although the floral organs have not been observed in many cultivated clones. This wide variation is attributable to cultivation selections, escapes, naturalizations, and re-domestications. It seems best, therefore, to treat Colocasia esculenta as a single species rather than formally recognize infraspecific taxa or segregate species (see Hay, Sandakania 7: 31-48. 1996).
The rhizomes, petioles, and inflorescences are used as a vegetable. The rhizomes are used medicinally for treating swellings, abscesses, snake and insect bites, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck.
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