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大麻Cannabis sativa

时间:2013-10-16 20:57来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):大麻 学名( Scientific Name ): Cannabis sativa L. 英文名( English Common Name ): marijuana 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 线麻、胡麻、火麻 异名( Synonym ): Cannabis indica Lam. Cannabis americana Pharm. e
中文名(Chinese Name):大麻
学名(Scientific Name):Cannabis sativa L.
英文名(English Common Name):marijuana
别名(Chinese Common Name):线麻、胡麻、火麻
异名(Synonym):Cannabis indica Lam.  Cannabis americana Pharm. ex Wehmer  Cannabis chinensis Delile  Cannabis erratica Siev.  Cannabis foetens Gilib.  Cannabis generalis E.H.L.Krause  Cannabis gigantea Crevost  Cannabis indica f. afghanica (Vavilov) Vavilov  Cannabis indica var. kafiristanica Vavilov  Cannabis intersita Soják  Cannabis kafiristanica (Vavilov) Chrtek  Cannabis lupulus Scop.  Cannabis macrosperma Stokes  Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.  Cannabis sativa f. afghanica Vavilov  Cannabis sativa f. chinensis (Delile) A.DC.  Cannabis sativa f. pedemontana A.DC.  Cannabis sativa subsp. intersita (Soják) Soják  Cannabis sativa var. gigantea (Delile ex Vilm.) Alef.  Cannabis sativa var. kafiristanica (Vavilov) E.Small & Cronquist  Cannabis sativa var. kif A.DC.  Cannabis sativa var. macrosperma (Stokes) Asch. & Graebn.  Cannabis sativa var. monoica Hol.  Cannabis sativa var. praecox Serebr.  Cannabis sativa var. spontanea Vavilov  Cannabis sativa var. vulgaris Alef.
科属Family & Genus):桑科(Moraceae)大麻属
形态特征Description):一年生直立草本,高1-3米,枝具纵沟槽,密生灰白色贴伏毛。叶掌状全裂,裂片 披针形或线状披针形,长7-15厘米,中裂片最长,宽0.5-2厘米,先端渐尖,基部狭 楔形,表面深绿,微被糙毛,背面幼时密被灰白色贴状毛后变无毛,边缘具向内弯的粗 锯齿,中脉及侧脉在表面微下陷,背面隆起;叶柄长3-15厘米,密被灰白色贴伏毛;托 叶线形。雄花序长达25厘米;花黄绿色,花被5,膜质,外面被细伏贴毛,雄蕊5,花 丝极短,花药长圆形;小花柄长约2-4毫米;雌花绿色;花被1,紧包子房,略被小毛; 子房近球形,外面包于苞片。瘦果为宿存黄褐色苞片所包,果皮坚脆,表面具细网纹。 花期5-6月,果期为7月。
分布Distribution):原产不丹、印度和中亚细亚,现各国均有野生或栽培。
用途(Use):茎皮纤维长而坚韧,可用以织麻布或纺线,制绳索,编织渔网和造纸;种子榨油,含 油量30%,可供做油漆,涂料等,油渣可作饲料。果实中医称“火麻仁”或“大麻仁” 入药,性平,味甘,功能:润肠,主治大便燥结。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 5 Page 75      
Cannabis sativa Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1027. 1753.
大麻 da ma| Cannabaceae  | Cannabis
Cannabis indica Lamarck; C. sativa var. indica (Lamarck) E. Small & Cronquist.
Plants 1-3 m tall. Branchlets densely white pubescent. Stipules linear. Leaves alternate; petiole 2-7 cm; leaf blade abaxially whitish green, strigose, and with scattered brownish resinous dots, adaxially dark green and with cystolith hairs; leaflets usually lanceolate to linear, (3-)7-15 × (0.2-)0.5-1.5(-2) cm with longest in middle, margin coarsely serrate, apex acuminate. Male inflorescences ca. 25 cm. Male flowers: yellowish green, nodding; pedicel 2-4 mm, thin; sepals ovate to lanceolate, 2.5-4 mm, membranous, with sparse prostrate hairs; petals absent; filament 0.5-1 mm; anthers oblong. Female inflorescences crowded in apical leaf axils among leaflike bracts and bracteoles. Female flowers: green, sessile; calyx sparsely pubescent; ovary globose, ± enclosed by appressed calyx, surrounded closely by bract and bracteoles. Persistent bracts yellow. Achene flattened ovoid, 2-5 mm; pericarp crustaceous, finely reticulate. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Jul.
Cultivated. throughout China, native or naturalized in Xinjiang [native or naturalized in Bhutan, India, and Sikkim; C Asia].
Cannabis sativa is probably originally native to Central Asia, but its long cultivation makes it difficult to know its exact original distribution. This long cultivation and human selection for different desirable characteristics has resulted in considerable variation, but separation of it into either several species or the recognition of several varieties is probably not justified beyond the level of cultivated forms. Cannabis ruderalis Janischewsky, from Russia, is considered by some to be a distinct species from C. sativa.
The long, strong fibers are used in the paper-making industry and for weaving cloth, the seeds are a source of oil, the leaves, flowers, and fruit are used medicinally, and the female inflorescences (particularly the glandular leafy bracts and bracteoles) are used as a drug.




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