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薤白Allium macrostemon

时间:2013-11-11 07:51来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 薤白 学名( Scientific Name ): Allium macrostemon Bunge 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 小根蒜,密花小根蒜 异名( Synonym ): Allium grayi Regel Allium chanetii H. Lv. Allium
中文名(Chinese Name):薤白
学名(Scientific Name):Allium macrostemon Bunge
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):小根蒜,密花小根蒜
异名(Synonym):Allium grayi Regel  Allium chanetii H. Lév.  Allium iatasen H. Lév.  Allium nereidum Hance  Allium ouensanense Nakai  Allium uratense Franch.  Allium nipponicum Franch. et Sav.  Allium grayi var. chanetii (H. Lév.) H. Lév.  Allium ousensanense Nakai  Allium macrostemon var. uratense (Franch.) Airy Shaw  Allium pallasii var. uratense (Franch.) Regel
科属Family & Genus):百合科Liliaceae葱属Allium
形态特征Description):鳞茎近球状,粗0.7-1.5 (-2) 厘米,基部常具小鳞茎(因其易脱落故在标本上不常见);鳞茎外皮带黑色,纸质或膜质,不破裂,但在标本上多因脱落而仅存白色的内皮。叶3-5枚,半圆柱状,或因背部纵棱发达而为三棱状半圆柱形,中空,上面具沟槽,比花葶短。花葶圆柱状,高30-70厘米,1/4-1/3被叶鞘;总苞2 裂,比花序短;伞形花序半球状至球状,具多而密集的花,或间具珠芽或有时全为珠芽;小花梗近等长,比花被片长3-5倍,基部具小苞片;珠芽暗紫色,基部亦具小苞片;花淡紫色或淡红色;花被片矩圆状卵形至矩圆状披针形,长4-5.5 毫米,宽1.2-2毫米,内轮的常较狭;花丝等长,比花被片稍长直到比其长1/3,在基部合、生并与花被片贴生,分离部分的基部呈狭三角形扩大,向上收狭成锥形,内轮的基部约为外轮基部宽的1.5倍;子房近球状,腹缝线基部具有帘的凹陷蜜穴;花柱伸出花被外。花果期5-7月。
分布(Distribution):除新疆、青海外,全国各省区均产。生于海拔1500米以下的山坡、丘陵、山谷或草地上,极少数地区在海拔3000米的山坡上也有。苏联、朝鲜和日本也有分布。
用途(Use):鳞茎作药用,也可作蔬菜食用,在少数地区已有栽培。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 24 Page 199   
Allium macrostemon Bunge, Enum. Pl. China Bor. 65. 1833.
薤白 xie bai| Liliaceae  | Allium
Allium chanetii H. Léveillé; A. grayi Regel; A. grayi var. chanetii (H. Léveillé) H. Léveillé; A. iatasen H. Léveillé; A. nereidum Hance; A. nipponicum Franchet & Savatier; A. ouensanense Nakai; A. uratense Franchet.
Bulb solitary, subglobose, 0.7--1.5(--2) cm in diam., usually with bulbels at base; tunic blackish, papery or membranous, entire. Leaves shorter than scape, 2--5 mm wide, semiterete or 3-angled-semiterete, abaxially strongly 1-angled, fistulose, adaxially channeled. Scape 30--70 cm, terete, covered with leaf sheaths for 1/4--1/3 its length. Spathe 2-valved, persistent. Umbel hemispheric to globose, densely many flowered, bearing bulblets and flowers or bulblets only. Pedicels subequal, 3--5 × as long as perianth, bracteolate. Perianth pale purple to pale red; segments oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, equal, 4--5.5 × 1.2--2 mm; inner ones usually shorter than outer. Filaments equal, 1/2 as long as to slightly shorter than perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth segments, base triangular; inner ones ca. 1/2 as wide as outer at base. Ovary subglobose, with concave nectaries covered by hoodlike projections at base. Style exserted. Fl. and fr. May--Jul. 2 n = 16, 24, 32*, 40*, 48.
Hills, slopes, valleys, plains; near sea level to 1600 m (to 3000 m in Xizang and Yunnan). Throughout China except Hainan, Qinghai, and Xinjiang [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia (Far East)].
 


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