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荔枝Litchi chinensis

时间:2013-11-09 12:57来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 荔枝 学名( Scientific Name ): Litchi chinensis Sonn. 英文名( English Common Name ): lychee 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Nephelium litchi Cambess. Litchi litchi (Cambess.) Britton Litc
中文名(Chinese Name):荔枝
学名(Scientific Name):Litchi chinensis Sonn.
英文名(English Common Name):lychee
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Nephelium litchi Cambess.  Litchi litchi (Cambess.) Britton  Litchi chinensis var. euspontanea H.H. Hsue  Nephelium chinense (Sonn.) Druce  Scytalia chinensis (Sonn.) Gaertn.
科属(Family & Genus):无患子科(Sapindaceae)荔枝属
形态特征(Description):常绿乔木,高通常不超过10米,有时可达15米或更高,树皮灰黑色;小枝圆柱状,褐红色,密生白色皮孔。叶连柄长10-25厘米或过之;小叶2或3对,较少4对,薄革质或革质,披针形或卵状披针形,有时长椭圆状披针形,长6-15厘米,宽2-4厘米,顶端骤尖或尾状短渐尖,全缘,腹面深绿色,有光泽,背面粉绿色,两面无毛;侧脉常纤细,在腹面不很明显,在背面明显或稍凸起;小叶柄长7-8毫米。花序顶生,阔大,多分枝;花梗纤细,长2-4毫米,有时粗而短;萼被金黄色短绒毛;雄蕊6-7,有时8,花丝长约4毫米;子房密覆小瘤体和硬毛。果卵圆形至近球形,长2-3.5厘米,成熟时通常暗红色至鲜红色;种子全部被肉质假种皮包裹。花期春季,果期夏季。
分布(Distribution):产我国西南部、南部和东南部,尤以广东和福建南部栽培最盛。亚洲东南部也有栽培,非洲、美洲和大洋洲都有引种的记录。
用途(Use):荔枝是我国南部有悠久栽培历史的著名果树,荔枝果实除食用外,核入药为收敛止痛剂,治心气痛和小肠气痛。木材坚实,深红褐色,纹理雅致、耐腐,历来为上等名材。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 12 Page 6, 16 
Litchi chinensis Sonnerat, Voy. Indes Orient. 3: 255. 1782.
荔枝 li zhi| Sapindaceae  | Litchi
Dimocarpus lichi Loureiro; Litchi chinensis var. euspontanea H. H. Hsue; Nephelium chinense (Sonnerat) Druce; N. lit-chi Cambessèdes; Scytalia chinensis (Sonnerat) Gaertner.
Trees, evergreen, often less than 10 m tall, sometimes to 15 m tall or more. Bark grayish black; branches brownish red, terete, with dense white lenticels. Leaves with petiole 10-25 cm or longer; leaflets 2 or 3(or 4) pairs; petiolules 7-8 mm; blades adaxially deep green and shiny, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, sometimes elliptic-lanceolate, 6-15 × 2-4 cm, thinly leathery or leathery, abaxially glaucous, glabrous, lateral veins often slender, conspicuous or slightly prominent abaxially, margin entire, apex cuspidate or shortly caudate-acuminate. Inflorescences terminal, large, many branched. Pedicels 2-4 mm, slender, sometimes short and stout. Calyx golden tomentose. Stamens 6 or 7, sometimes 8; filaments ca. 4 mm. Ovary densely tuberculous
and hispid. Fruit usually dark red to fresh red when mature, globose to subglobose, 2-3.5 cm. Seeds thoroughly covered by fleshy arillode. Fl. spring, fr. summer.
Native in SW Guangdong (Xuwen) and Hainan; widely cultivated in S China, especially in S Fujian and Guangdong [Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; widely cultivated in subtropical regions].
Long cultivated in China, this species is famous for its fruit (litchi, lichee, lychee). Nowadays there are about ten cultivars in China.
 








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