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中粒咖啡Coffea canephora

时间:2013-11-08 12:42来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):中粒咖啡 学名( Scientific Name ): Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner 英文名( English Common Name ): robusta coffee 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 中果咖啡 异名( Synonym ): Coffea quillon Wester Coffea l
中文名(Chinese Name):中粒咖啡
学名(Scientific Name):Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner
英文名(English Common Name):robusta coffee
别名(Chinese Common Name):中果咖啡
异名(Synonym):Coffea quillon Wester  Coffea laurentii De Wild.  Coffea welwitschii Pierre ex De Wild.  Coffea maclaudii A.Chev.  Coffea bukobensis A.Zimm.  Coffea ugandae Cramer  Coffea robusta L.Linden  Coffea arabica var. stuhlmannii A.Froehner  Coffea canephora var. crassifolia Lautent ex De Wild.  Coffea canephora var. gossweileri A.Chev.  Coffea canephora var. hiernii Pierre ex De Wild.  Coffea canephora var. kouilouensis De Wild.  Coffea canephora var. laurentii (De Wild.) A.Chev.  Coffea canephora var. muniensis Pierre ex De Wild.  Coffea canephora var. maclaudii (A.Chev.) A.Chev.  Coffea canephora var. nganda Haarer  Coffea canephora var. oka A.Chev.  Coffea canephora var. oligoneura Pierre ex De Wild.  Coffea canephora var. robusta (L.Linden) A.Chev.  Coffea canephora f. sankuruensis De Wild.  Coffea canephora var. sankuruensis (De Wild.) De Wild.  Coffea canephora var. trillesii De Wild.  Coffea canephora var. stuhlmannii (A.Froehner) A.Chev.  Coffea canephora var. ugandae (Cramer) A.Chev.  Coffea canephora var. wildemanii Pierre ex De Wild.  Coffea canephora var. welwitschii (Pierre ex De Wild.) A.Chev.  Coffea canephora var. hinaultii Pierre ex De Wild.  Coffea canephora var. opaca Pierre ex De Wild.
科属Family & Genus):茜草科(Rubiaceae)咖啡属
形态特征(Description):小乔木或灌木,高4-8米;侧枝长下垂,基部平滑,表皮灰白色,嫩枝无毛,压扁形。叶厚纸质,椭圆形,卵状长圆形或披针形,长15-30厘米,宽6-12厘米,顶端急尖,渐尖部分长10-18毫米,基部楔形,有时稍钝,全缘或呈浅波形,两面无毛,下面脉腋内无小窝孔或具无丛毛的窝孔;侧脉每边10-12条,略开展,小脉网状,明显;叶柄粗壮,长10-20毫米;托叶三角形,长7毫米,初时基部合生,顶端锐尖,生于老枝上的阔三角形。聚伞花序1-3个,簇生于叶腋内,每个聚伞花序有花3-6朵,具极短的总花梗;苞片基部稍合生,二型,其中2枚阔三角形,长和宽近相等,另2枚则为披针形或长圆形,长约为宽的3倍,花后增大;萼管短管形,萼檐顶部截平或具不明显的小齿;花冠白色,罕有浅红色,长20-26毫米,冠管在花蕾时较短,盛开时延长,顶部5-7裂,很少4或8裂;花丝短,花药伸出花冠管外,长8-10毫米;花柱突出,长12-17毫米,柱头2裂,长约6毫米。浆果近球形,长和直径近相等,约10-12毫米,顶端冠以隆起的花盘,外果皮薄,有2条纵槽和极纤细的纵条纹;种子背面隆起,腹面平坦,长9-11毫米,宽7-9毫米。花期4-6月。
分布(Distribution):原产非洲,华南、西南有引种。
用途(Use):种子含“咖啡因”稍高,香味较差。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 19 Page 90, 91      
Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner, Notizbl. Königl. Bot. Gart. Berlin. 1: 237. 1897.
中粒咖啡 zhong li ka fei| Rubiaceae  | Coffea
Coffea robusta L. Linden.
Small trees or shrubs, 4-8 m tall; branches flattened becoming subterete, glabrous. Petiole 10-20 mm, glabrous; leaf blade drying thickly papery, elliptic, elliptic-oblong, or occasionally ovate-oblong, (12-)15-30(-40) × (4.5-)6-12(-22) cm, glabrous on both surfaces, base cuneate to obtuse, margins flat or occasionally crisped-undulate, apex acuminate with tip 10-18 mm; secondary veins (8-)10-12(-17) pairs, without domatia or with glabrous foveolate domatia; stipules triangular, 6-18 mm, obtuse to acute, aristate. Inflorescences with cymes 1-3(-7) in each axil, each cyme subcapitate to fasciculate, 3-6-flowered, subsessile to pedunculate with peduncles to 7 mm; bracts cupular, 1-3 mm; pedicels to 2 mm. Calyx glabrous; ovary portion ellipsoid, 1-2 mm; limb reduced or denticulate, 0.1-0.5 mm. Corolla white to pink, funnelform, outside glabrous; tube 5-16 mm; lobes (4 or)5-7(or 8), spatulate to narrowly elliptic, 8-19 mm, obtuse to rounded. Drupe red, subglobose, 10-12 × 10-12 mm, smooth when dry, glabrous. Fl. Apr-Jun, fr. Oct-Dec.
Cultivated in moist, often warm tropical regions. Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Yunnan [widespread in tropical Africa; commonly cultivated worldwide].
This species is diploid and is cultivated as "Robusta Coffee." It has been widely hybridized with several other species to produce commercial coffee plants.
 




















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