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小粒咖啡Coffea arabica

时间:2013-11-08 12:41来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):小粒咖啡 学名( Scientific Name ): Coffea arabica L. 英文名( English Common Name ): Arabian coffee 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 小果咖啡 异名( Synonym ): Coffea moka Heynh. Coffea vulgaris Moench Coffea
中文名(Chinese Name):小粒咖啡
学名(Scientific Name):Coffea arabica L.
英文名(English Common Name):Arabian coffee
别名(Chinese Common Name):小果咖啡
异名(Synonym):Coffea moka Heynh.  Coffea vulgaris Moench  Coffea sundana Miq.  Coffea bourbonica Pharm. ex Wehmer  Coffea corymbulosa Bertol.  Coffea arabica var. murta Lalière  Coffea arabica var. amarella A.Froehner  Coffea arabica var. bourbon Rodr. ex Choussy  Coffea arabica var. bullata Cramer  Coffea arabica var. brevistipulata Cif.  Coffea arabica var. columnaris Ottol. ex Cramer  Coffea arabica var. erecta Ottol. ex Cramer  Coffea arabica var. latifolia A.Chev.  Coffea arabica var. maragogype A.Froehner  Coffea arabica var. mokka Cramer  Coffea arabica var. monosperma Ottol. & Cramer  Coffea arabica var. polysperma Burck  Coffea arabica var. pendula Cramer  Coffea arabica var. pubescens Cif.  Coffea arabica var. rotundifolia Ottol. ex Cramer  Coffea arabica var. straminea Miq. ex A.Froehner  Coffea arabica var. sundana (Miq.) A.Chev.  Coffea arabica var. typica Cramer  Coffea arabica f. abyssinica A.Chev.  Coffea arabica var. culta A.Chev.  Coffea arabica var. variegata Ottol. ex Cramer  Coffea arabica var. cultoides A.Chev.  Coffea arabica var. longistipulata Cif.  Coffea arabica var. purpurascens Cramer  Coffea arabica var. myrtifolia A.Chev.
科属Family & Genus):茜草科(Rubiaceae)咖啡属
形态特征Description):小乔木或大灌木,高5-8米,基部通常多分枝;老枝灰白色,节膨大,幼枝无毛,压扁形。叶薄革质,卵状披针形或披针形,长6-14厘米,宽3.5-5厘米,顶端长渐尖,渐尖部分长10-15毫米,基部楔形或微钝,罕有圆形,全缘或呈浅波形,两面无毛,下面脉腋内有或无小窝孔;中脉在叶片两面均凸起,侧脉每边7-13条;叶柄长8-15毫米;托叶阔三角形,生于幼枝上部的顶端锥状长尖或芒尖,生于老枝上的顶端常为突尖,长3-6毫米。聚伞花序数个簇生于叶腋内,每个花序有花2-5朵,无总花梗或具极短总花梗;花芳香,有长0.5-1毫米的花梗;苞片基部多少合生,二型,其中2枚阔三角形,长和宽近相等,另2枚披针形,长为宽的2倍,叶形;萼管管形,长2.5-3毫米,萼檐截平或具5小齿;花冠白色,长度因品种而异,一般长10-18毫米,顶部常5裂,罕有4或6裂,裂片常长于花冠管,顶端常钝;花药伸出冠管外,长6-8毫米;花柱长12-14毫米,柱头2裂,长3-4毫米。浆果成熟时阔椭圆形,红色,长12-16毫米,直径10-12毫米,外果皮硬膜质,中果皮肉质,有甜味;种子背面凸起,腹面平坦,有纵槽,长8-10毫米,直径5-7毫米。花期3-4月。
分布(Distribution):原产埃塞俄比亚或阿拉伯半岛,我国引种栽培。
用途(Use):本种为咖啡属中最广泛栽植种。由于其抗寒力强,又耐短期低温,在热带地区可生长于海拔2100米的高山上,但不耐旱;枝条比较脆弱,不耐强风;抗病力比较弱;果成熟后易脱落;经加工后咖啡味香醇和含咖啡因成分较低。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 19 Page 90, 91      
Coffea arabica Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 172. 1753.
小粒咖啡 xiao li ka fei| Rubiaceae  | Coffea
Small trees or large shrubs, 5-8 m tall; branches flattened to subterete, glabrous. Petiole 8-15 mm, glabrous; leaf blade drying thinly leathery, elliptic, elliptic-oblong, or occasionally ovate-lanceolate, (2-)6-14(-22) × 3.5-5(-8.5) cm, glabrous on both surfaces, base cuneate to obtuse or rarely rounded, margins occasionally crisped-undulate, apex acuminate with tip usually 10-15 mm; secondary veins 7-10(-13) pairs, without domatia or with glabrous foveolate domatia; stipules broadly triangular, 3-8(-12) mm, aristate at least on youngest branches. Inflorescences with 1 to several cymes in each axil, each cyme subcapitate to fasciculate, (1 or)2-5-flowered, sessile to pedunculate with peduncles to 4 mm; bracts cupuliform, 1-2 mm; pedicels to 2 mm. Calyx glabrous; ovary portion ellipsoid, 1-3 mm; limb truncate to undulate or denticulate, 0.2-1 mm. Corolla white, funnelform, outside glabrous; tube 5-15 mm; lobes (4 or)5(or 6), spatulate-elliptic, 9-20 mm, obtuse. Drupe red, ellipsoid to subglobose, 11-16 × 9-14 mm, when dry smooth or sometimes weakly didymous, glabrous. Fl. Mar-Jul, fr. Oct-Jan.
Cultivated in moist, usually cool tropical regions; 200-700 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan [native to E Africa (Ethiopia, N Kenya, Sudan); cultivated worldwide].
This species is tetraploid and is the source of "Arabica Coffee." It has been widely hybridized with several other Coffea species to produce commercial coffee plants; flower size varies markedly among many of these.
 






 
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