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树莓Rubus idaeus

时间:2013-11-06 21:05来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 树莓 学名( Scientific Name ): Rubus idaeus Linn. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 覆盆子、绒毛悬钩子 异名( Synonym ): Rubus idaeus subsp. vulgatus Arrh. Batidaea idea (L.) N
中文名(Chinese Name):树莓
学名(Scientific Name):Rubus idaeus Linn.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):覆盆子、绒毛悬钩子
异名(Synonym):Rubus idaeus subsp. vulgatus Arrh.  Batidaea idea (L.) Nieuwl.  Batidaea vulgaris Nieuwl.  Rubus frambaesianus Lam.  Batidaea strigosa subsp. itascica Greene
科属Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)悬钩子属
形态特征Description):灌木,高1-2米;枝褐色或红褐色,幼时被绒毛状短柔毛,疏生皮刺。小叶3-7枚,花枝上有时具3小叶,不孕枝上常5-7小叶,长卵形或椭圆形,顶生小叶常卵形,有时浅裂,长3-8厘米,宽1.5-4.5厘米,顶端短渐尖,基部圆形,顶生小叶基部近心形,上面无毛或疏生柔毛,下面密被灰白色绒毛,边缘有不规则粗锯齿或重锯齿;叶柄长3-6厘米,顶生小叶柄长约1厘米,均被绒毛状短柔毛和稀疏小刺;托叶线形,具短柔毛。花生于侧枝顶端成短总状花序或少花腋生,总花梗和花梗均密被绒毛状短柔毛和疏密不等的针刺;花梗长1-2厘米;苞片线形,具短柔毛;花直径1-1.5厘米;花萼外面密被绒毛状短柔毛和疏密不等的针刺;萼片卵状披针形,顶端尾尖,外面边缘具灰白色绒毛,在花果时均直立;花瓣匙形,被短柔毛或无毛,白色,基部有宽爪;花丝宽扁,长于花柱;花柱基部和子房密被灰白色绒毛。果实近球形,多汁液,直径1-1.4厘米,红色或橙黄色,密被短绒毛;核具明显洼孔。花期5-6月,果期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):产吉林、辽宁、河北、山西、新疆,生海拔500-2000米山地杂木林边、灌丛或荒野。日本、俄罗斯、北美、欧洲也有分布。
用途(Use):果供食用,在欧洲久经栽培,有多数栽培品种作水果用;又可入药,有明目、补肾作用。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 208     
Rubus idaeus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 492. 1753.
复盆子 fu pen zi| Rosaceae  | Rubus
Shrubs 1–2 m tall. Branchlets brown or reddish brown, terete, sparsely tomentose when young, with sparse prickles, without stalked glands. Leaves imparipinnate, 5–7-foliolate, rarely 3-foliolate; petiole 3–6 cm, petiolule of terminal leaflet ca. 1 cm, petiolule and rachis tomentose, with sparse, minute prickles, without glandular hairs; stipules linear, pubescent; blade of leaflets narrowly ovate or elliptic, often ovate on terminal leaflet, 3–8 × 1.5–4.5 cm, abaxially densely tomentose, adaxially glabrous or pilose, base rounded, sometimes subcordate on terminal leaflet, margin unevenly coarsely serrate or doubly serrate, sometimes lobed on terminal leaflet, apex shortly acuminate. Inflorescences terminal, short racemes, rarely several flowers in clusters in leaf axils; rachis, pedicels, and abaxial surface of calyx densely tomentose, with dense or sparse, needle-like prickles, without glandular hairs; bracts linear, soft hairy. Pedicel 1–2 cm. Flowers 1–1.5 cm in diam. Sepals erect, ovate-lanceolate, margin gray tomentose, apex caudate. Petals white, spatulate, puberulous or glabrous, base broadly clawed. Stamens many, shorter than petals; filaments broadened and flattened. Pistils shorter than stamens; ovary and base of style densely gray tomentose. Aggregate fruit red or orange, subglobose, 1–1.4 cm in diam. densely shortly tomentose; pyrenes prominently pitted. 2n = 14*.
Forests, forest margins, thickets, valleys, slopes, meadows, roadsides, waste places; 500--2500 m. Hebei, S Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shanxi, Xinjiang [Japan, Russia; Europe, North America].
The fruit are eaten raw and are used for making jam, jelly, juice, wine, and vinegar. The dried fruit are used in medicine. The stems and roots are a source of tannin.
 






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