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荞麦Fagopyrum esculentum

时间:2013-10-30 14:01来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):荞麦 学名( Scientific Name ): Fagopyrum esculentum Moench 英文名( English Common Name ): buckwheat 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 甜荞 异名( Synonym ): Fagopyrum zuogongense Q. F. Chen Polygonum emargina
中文名(Chinese Name):荞麦
学名(Scientific Name):Fagopyrum esculentum Moench
英文名(English Common Name):buckwheat
别名(Chinese Common Name):甜荞
异名(Synonym):Fagopyrum zuogongense Q. F. Chen  Polygonum emarginatum Roth  Polygonum fagopyrum L.  Fagopyrum emarginatum var. kunawurense Meissn.  Fagopyrum fagopyrum (L.) Karst.  Fagopyrum vulgare Hill  Fagopyrum sagittatum Gilib.  Fagopyrum cereale Raf.  Kunokale carneum Raf.  Fagopyrum dryandrii Fenzl  Fagopyrum emarginatum var. kunawarense Meisn.  Fagopyrum esculentum subsp. ancestralis Ohnishi  Fagopyrum polygonum Macloskie  Fagopyrum sarracenicum Dumort.  Helxine fagopyrum Kuntze  Phegopyrum esculentum Peterm.  Polygonum cereale Salisb.  Polygonum dioicum Buch.-Ham. ex Meisn.  Polygonum macropterum Meisn.  Polygonum pyramidatum Loisel.
科属(Family & Genus):蓼科(Polygonaceae)荞麦属
形态特征(Description):一年生草本。茎直立,高30-90厘米,上部分枝,绿色或红色,具纵棱,无毛或于一侧沿纵棱具乳头状突起。叶三角形或卵状三角形,长2.5-7厘米,宽2-5厘米,顶端渐尖,基部心形,两面沿叶脉具乳头状突起;下部叶具长叶柄,上部较小近无梗;托叶鞘膜质,短筒状,长约5毫米,顶端偏斜,无缘毛,易破裂脱落。花序总状或伞房状,顶生或腋生,花序梗一侧具小突起;苞片卵形,长约2.5毫米,绿色,边缘膜质,每苞内具3-5花;花梗比苞片长,无关节,花被5深裂,白色或淡红色,花被片椭圆形,长3-4毫米;雄蕊8,比花被短,花药淡红色;花柱3,柱头头状。瘦果卵形,具3锐棱,顶端渐尖,长5-6毫米,暗褐色,无光泽,比宿存花被长。花期5-9月,果期6-10月。
分布(Distribution):我国各地有栽培,有时逸为野生。生荒地、路边。
用途(Use):种子含丰富淀粉,供食用;为蜜源植物;全草入药,治高血压、视网膜出血、肺出血。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 5 Page 323     
Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Methodus. 290. 1794.
荞麦 qiao mai| Polygonaceae  | Fagopyrum
Fagopyrum emarginatum (Roth) Meisner; ?F. emarginatum var. kunawarense Meisner; F. zuogongense Q. F. Chen; Polygonum emarginatum Roth; P. fagopyrum Linnaeus.
Herbs annual. Stems green or red when mature, erect, 30-90 cm tall, branched above, glabrous or papillate on one side. Petiole 1.5-5 cm; leaf blade triangular, 2.5-7 × 2-5 cm, both surfaces papillate along veins, base cordate or nearly truncate, apex acuminate; ocrea caducous, ca. 5 mm, membranous, oblique, not ciliate. Inflorescence axillary or terminal, racemose or corymbose; peduncles 2-4 cm, papillate along one side; bracts green, ovate, 2.5-3 mm, margin membranous, each 3- or 5-flowered. Pedicels longer than bracts, not articulate. Perianth pink or white; tepals elliptic, 3-4 mm. Anthers pinkish. Styles heterostylous. Achenes exceeding persistent perianth, dark brown, opaque, ovoid, sharply trigonous, 5-6 mm, surfaces flat. Fl. May-Sep, fr. Jun-Oct. 2n = 16*, 32*.
Probably native to China, but commonly cultivated and easily escaping [cultivated in Bhutan, Korea, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, and Sikkim; also Australia, Europe, and North America].
 




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