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绿豆Vigna radiata

时间:2018-08-12 19:44来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):绿豆 学名( Scientific Name ): Vigna radiata (Linn.) Wilczek 英文名( English Common Name ): mung bean 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 绿小豆 异名( Synonym ): Azukia radiata (L.) Ohwi Phaseolus radiatus L.
中文名(Chinese Name):绿豆
学名(Scientific Name):Vigna radiata (Linn.) Wilczek
英文名(English Common Name):mung bean
别名(Chinese Common Name):绿小豆
异名(Synonym): Azukia radiata (L.) Ohwi  Phaseolus radiatus L.  Pueraria chaneti H. Lév.  Rudua aurea (Roxb.) Maek.  Phaseolus abyssinicus Savi  Phaseolus aureus Roxb.  Phaseolus radiatus var. typical Matsum.  Phaseolus chanetii (H.Lev.)H.Lev.  Pueraria chanetii H.Lev.  Vigna radiata var. radiata (L.)R.Wilczek  Phaseolus trinervius Wight & Arn.  Phaseolus radiatus var. aurea (Roxb.)  Phaseolus radiatus var. typicus Prain  Vigna radiata var. dublobata (Roxb.)Verdc.
科属(Family & Genus):豆科(Leguminosae)豇豆属
形态特征(Description):一年生直立草本,高20-60厘米。茎被褐色长硬毛。羽状复叶具3小叶;托叶盾状着生,卵形,长0.8-1.2厘米,具缘毛;小托叶显著,披针形;小叶卵形,长5-16厘米,宽3-12厘米,侧生的多少偏斜,全缘,先端渐尖,基部阔楔形或浑圆,两面多少被疏长毛,基部三脉明显;叶柄长5-21厘米;叶轴长1.5-4厘米;小叶柄长3-6毫米。总状花序腋生,有花4至数朵,最多可达25朵;总花梗长2.5-9.5厘米;花梗长2-3毫米;小苞片线状披针形或长圆形,长4-7毫米,有线条,近宿存;萼管无毛,长3-4毫米,裂片狭三角形,长1.5-4毫米,具缘毛,上方的一对合生成一先端2裂的裂片;旗瓣近方形,长1.2厘米,宽1.6厘米,外面黄绿色,里面有时粉红,顶端微凹,内弯,无毛;翼瓣卵形,黄色;龙骨瓣镰刀状,绿色而染粉红,右侧有显著的囊。荚果线状圆柱形,平展,长4-9厘米,宽5-6毫米,被淡褐色、散生的长硬毛,种子间多少收缩;种子8-14颗,淡绿色或黄褐色,短圆柱形,长2.5-4毫米,宽2.5-3毫米,种脐白色而不凹陷。花期初夏,果期6-8月。
分布(Distribution):我国南北各地均有栽培。世界各热带、亚热带地区广泛栽培。
用途(Use):种子供食用,亦可提取淀粉,制作豆沙、粉丝等。洗净置流水中,遮光发芽,可制成芽菜,供蔬食。入药,有清凉解毒、利尿明目之效。全株是很好的夏季绿肥。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 255, 257
Vigna radiata (Linnaeus) R. Wilczek, Fl. Congo Belge. 6: 386. 1954.
绿豆 lü dou | Fabaceae  | Vigna
Annual herbs, erect, twining, or creeping, 20-60 cm tall. Stems hispid with brown spreading hairs. Stipules peltate, ovate, 0.8-1.2 cm, ciliate; petiole 5-21 cm; leaflets ovate, 5-16 × 3-12 cm, lateral ones ± oblique, ± sparsely pilose on both sur­faces, sometimes 3-veined from base, base broadly cuneate or rounded, apex acuminate or acute. Racemes axillary, 4- to sev­eral flowered (up to 25). Bracteoles linear-lanceolate or oblong, striate. Calyx tube 3-4 mm, glabrous; lobes narrowly deltoid, 1.5-4 mm, upper 2 connate into a 2-fid lip. Standard yellow-green outside, sometimes pink inside, suboblate, ca. 1.2 × 1.6 cm, apex emarginate; wings yellow, ovate; keel falcate and in­curved through 180°, green tinged with pink. Legumes linear-terete, 4-9 × ca. 0.6 cm, shortly hispid with pale brown hairs. Seeds 8-14, greenish or yellow-brown, shortly cylindric, 2.5-4 × 2.5-3 mm; hilum white. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Jun-Sep.
Open wastelands, roadsides, thicket margins, also cultivated; ca. 500 m. Taiwan; cultivated throughout China [Cambodia, India, Indo­nesia, Laos, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa; widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions].
The seeds are edible and are used medicinally.
Two varieties occur in China. In addition, Vigna radiata var. gla­bra (Roxburgh) Verdcourt (Kew Bull. 24: 559. 1970; Phaseolus glaber Roxburgh, Fl. Ind., ed. 1832, 3: 291. 1832) was said to occur in China in Fl. Cambodge, Laos & Vietnam (17: 198. 1979). This variety has al­most glabrous stems, leaves, and legumes, but no specimens from China have been seen.


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