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菜豆Phaseolus vulgaris

时间:2018-08-12 19:46来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 菜豆 学名( Scientific Name ): Phaseolus vulgaris Linn. 英文名( English Common Name ): kidney bean 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Phaseolus vulgaris var. aborigineus (Burkart) Baudet Pha
中文名(Chinese Name):菜豆
学名(Scientific Name):Phaseolus vulgaris Linn.
英文名(English Common Name):kidney bean
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Phaseolus vulgaris var. aborigineus (Burkart) Baudet  Phaseolus aborigineus Burkart  Phaseolus esculentus Salisb.  Phaseolus nanus L. & Jusl.  Phaseolus compessus DC.
科属(Family & Genus):豆科(Leguminosae)菜豆属
形态特征(Description):一年生、缠绕或近直立草本。茎被短柔毛或老时无毛。羽状复叶具3小叶;托叶披针形,长约4毫米,基着。小叶宽卵形或卵状菱形,侧生的偏斜,长4-16厘米,宽2.5-11厘米,先端长渐尖,有细尖,基部圆形或宽楔形,全缘,被短柔毛。总状花序比叶短,有数朵生于花序顶部的花;花梗长5-8毫米;小苞片卵形,有数条隆起的脉,约与花萼等长或稍较其为长,宿存;花萼杯状,长3-4毫米,上方的2枚裂片连合成一微凹的裂片;花冠白色、黄色、紫堇色或红色;旗瓣近方形,宽9-12毫米,翼瓣倒卵形,龙骨瓣长约1厘米,先端旋卷,子房被短柔毛,花柱压扁。荚果带形,稍弯曲,长10-15厘米,宽1-1.5厘米,略肿胀,通常无毛,顶有喙;种子4-6,长椭圆形或肾形,长0.9-2厘米,宽0.3-1.2厘米,白色、褐色、蓝色或有花斑,种脐通常白色。花期春夏。
分布(Distribution):全国均有栽培。原产美洲,现广植于各热带至温带地区。
用途(Use):本种为本属栽培最广的一种作物,嫩荚供蔬食,品种逾500个,故植株的形态,花的颜色和大小,荚果及种子的形状和颜色均有较大的变异,风味也不同。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 260
Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 723. 1753.
菜豆 cai dou| Fabaceae  | Phaseolus
Annual herbs, twining or suberect. Stems pubescent or glabrescent when old. Stipules lanceolate, ca. 4 mm; leaflets broadly ovate or obovate-rhombic, lateral ones oblique, 4-16 × 2.5-11 cm, pubescent, base rounded or broadly cuneate, margin entire, apex acuminate. Racemes shorter than leaves, usually several flowered at top of rachis. Bracteoles ovate, usually as long as calyx or slightly longer, persistent. Calyx cup-shaped, 3-4 mm, upper lip emarginate. Corolla white, yellow, violet, or red; standard 9-12 mm wide; wings obovate; keel ca. 1 cm, apex spirally twisted. Ovary pubescent. Legumes linear-oblong, 10-15 × 1-1.5 cm, slightly curved and turgid, glabrous, beaked. Seeds 4-10, white, brown, blue, or variegated, oblong or ensi­form, 0.9-2 × 0.3-1.2 cm. Fl. Apr-Jul.
Cultivated. Throughout China [native to tropical America; widely cultivated everywhere].
This species is used as a vegetable.
Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alefeld is a variety frequently cultivated in Guangdong.




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