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花生Arachis hypogaea

TAG标签: 蝶形花科 Arachis
时间:2018-08-12 19:48来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):花生 学名( Scientific Name ): Arachis hypogaea L. 英文名( English Common Name ): peanut 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 落花生 异名( Synonym ): Arachis nambyquarae Hoehne Arachis hypogaea subsp. oleifera
中文名(Chinese Name):花生
学名(Scientific Name): Arachis hypogaea L.
英文名(English Common Name):peanut
别名(Chinese Common Name):落花生
异名(Synonym): Arachis nambyquarae Hoehne  Arachis hypogaea subsp. oleifera A.Chev.  Arachis hypogea L., 1753  Lathyrus esquirolii H. Lév.
科属(Family & Genus):一年生草本。根部有丰富的根瘤;茎直立或匍匐,长30-80厘米,茎和分枝均有棱,被黄色长柔毛,后变无毛。叶通常具小叶2对;托叶长2-4厘米,具纵脉纹,被毛;叶柄基部抱茎,长5-10厘米,被毛;小叶纸质,卵状长圆形至倒卵形,长2-4厘米,宽0.5-2厘米,先端钝圆形,有时微凹,具小刺尖头,基部近圆形,全缘,两面被毛,边缘具睫毛;侧脉每边约10条;叶脉边缘互相联结成网状;小叶柄长2-5毫米,被黄棕色长毛;花长约8毫米;苞片2,披针形;小苞片披针形,长约5毫米,具纵脉纹,被柔毛;萼管细,长4-6厘米;花冠黄色或金黄色,旗瓣直径1.7厘米,开展,先端凹入;翼瓣与龙骨瓣分离,翼瓣长圆形或斜卵形,细长;龙骨瓣长卵圆形,内弯,先端渐狭成喙状,较翼瓣短;花柱延伸于萼管咽部之外,柱头顶生,小,疏被柔毛。荚果长2-5厘米,宽1-1.3厘米,膨胀,荚厚,种子横径0.5-1厘米。花果期6-8月。
形态特征(Description):豆科(Leguminosae)落花生属
分布(Distribution):约在16世纪初叶或中叶引入我国,现南北均有栽培。
用途(Use):落花生为重要油料作物之一,种子含油量约45%,除食用外,亦是制皂和生发油等化妆品的原料;油麸为肥料和饲料;茎、叶为良好绿肥,茎可供造纸。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 131, 132
Arachis hypogaea Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 741. 1753.
落花生 luo hua sheng | Fabaceae  | Arachis
Lathyrus esquirolii H. Léveillé.
Herbs, annual, erect to decumbent. Stems erect or procum­bent, (6-)30-80 cm tall, yellowish pubescent, glabrescent. Stipules 2-4 cm, pilose. Leaves usually 4-foliolate; petiole 3.7-10 cm, covered with long flexuous trichomes, basally adnate to stipule; petiolules 1-10 mm, velutinous; leaflet blades ovate-oblong to obovate, 1.1-5.9 × 0.5-3.4 cm, papery, both surfaces with long trichomes, veins ca. 10 on each side of midvein, base almost rounded, margin ciliate, apex obtuse or emarginate and mucronate. Bracts lanceolate, apex acuminate. Flowers 8-10 mm, sessile; bracteoles lanceolate, ca. 5 mm, velutinous. Calyx tube 4-6 mm, thin. Corolla yellow to golden yellow; standard spreading, apex emarginate; wings distinct, oblong to obliquely ovate, slender; keels distinct, long ovate, shorter than wings, inflexed, apex acuminate to beaked. Ovary oblong; style longer than calyx; stigma terminal, small, sparsely pubescent. Legume geocarpic, oblong, inflated, 2-5 × 1-1.3 cm, thick-walled, retic­ulate veined, with 1-4(-6) seeds. Seeds light brown, oblong, 5-10 mm in diam. Fl. May-Aug, fr. Jul-Sep. 4n = 40.
Grown in sandy warm areas. Cultivated in Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, and Zhejiang [native to tropical South America].
Peanuts are grown over much of China except for Heilongjiang, Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, and Xinjiang. In addition to being used for food, they are used as a source of oil, soap, cosmetics, green fertilizer, fodder, and paper.






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