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大豆Glycine max

时间:2018-08-12 19:48来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 大豆 学名( Scientific Name ): Glycine max (Linn.) Merr. 英文名( English Common Name ): soybean 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 黄豆 异名( Synonym ): Dolichos soja L. Glycine hispida (Moench) Maxim. Soja
中文名(Chinese Name):大豆
学名(Scientific Name): Glycine max (Linn.) Merr.
英文名(English Common Name):soybean
别名(Chinese Common Name):黄豆
异名(Synonym): Dolichos soja L.  Glycine hispida (Moench) Maxim.  Soja hispida Moench  Soja max (L.) Piper  Soja soja (L.) H. Karst.  Soja viridis Savi  Soja japonica Savi  Soja angustifolia Miq.  Phalseolus max L.  Glycine soja var. maximowiczi Enken  Glycine soja f. maximowiczi (Enken) L.Z. Wang
科属Family & Genus):豆科(Leguminosae)大豆属
形态特征Description):一年生草本,高30-90厘米。茎粗壮,直立,或上部近缠绕状,上部多少具棱,密被褐色长硬毛。叶通常具3小叶;托叶宽卵形,渐尖,长3-7毫米,具脉纹,被黄色柔毛;叶柄长2-20厘米,幼嫩时散生疏柔毛或具棱并被长硬毛;小叶纸质,宽卵形,近圆形或椭圆状披针形,顶生一枚较大,长5-12厘米,宽2.5-8厘米,先端渐尖或近圆形,稀有钝形,具小尖凸,基部宽楔形或圆形,侧生小叶较小,斜卵形,通常两面散生糙毛或下面无毛;侧脉每边5条;小托叶铍针形,长1-2毫米;小叶柄长1.5-4毫米,被黄褐色长硬毛。总状花序短的少花,长的多花;总花梗长10-35毫米或更长,通常有5-8朵无柄、紧挤的花,植株下部的花有时单生或成对生于叶腋间;苞片披针形,长2-3毫米,被糙伏毛;小苞片披针形,长2-3毫米,被伏贴的刚毛;花萼长4-6毫米,密被长硬毛或糙伏毛,常深裂成二唇形,裂片5,披针形,上部2裂片常合生至中部以上,下部3裂片分离,均密被白色长柔毛,花紫色、淡紫色或白色,长4.5-8(-10)毫米,旗瓣倒卵状近圆形,先端微凹并通常外反,基部具瓣柄,翼瓣蓖状,基部狭,具瓣柄和耳,龙骨瓣斜倒卵形,具短瓣柄;雄蕊二体;子房基部有不发达的腺体,被毛。荚果肥大,长圆形,稍弯,下垂,黄绿色,长4-7.5厘米,宽8-15毫米,密被褐黄色长毛;种子2-5颗,椭圆形、近球形,卵圆形至长圆形,长约1厘米,宽约5-8毫米,种皮光滑,淡绿、黄、褐和黑色等多样,因品种而异,种脐明显,椭圆形。花期6-7月,果期7-9月。
分布Distribution):原产我国。全国各地均有栽培,以东北最著名,亦广泛栽培于世界各地。
用途Use):除供直接食用外,可作酱、酱油和各种豆制食品;茎、叶、豆粕及粗豆粉作肥料和优良的牲畜饲料。
引自植物志英文版 FOC Vol. 10 Page 250, 251, 252 
Glycine max (Linnaeus) Merrill, Interpr. Herb. Amboin. 274. 1917.
大豆 da dou | Fabaceae  | Glycine
Phaseolus max Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 725. 1753; Dolichos soja Linnaeus; Glycine angustifolia Miquel; G. hispida (Moench) Maximowicz; Soja angustifolia Miquel; S. hispida Moench; S. japonica Savi; S. max (Linnaeus) Piper; S. viridis Savi.
Herbs annual, 0.3-0.9 m tall. Stems robust, erect, some­times ± twining at apex, ± ribbed, densely brown hirsute. Leaves usually pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules broadly ovate, 3-7 mm, acuminate, densely yellow villous; petiole 2-20 cm, sparsely pubescent or hirsute when young; stipels lanceolate, 1-2 mm; petiolules 1.5-4 mm, hirsute; leaflets papery, broadly ovate, al­most circular, or elliptic-lanceolate, terminal one larger, 5-12 × 2.5-8 cm, base broadly cuneate or rounded, apex acuminate or ± rounded, mucronate; lateral leaflets smaller, obliquely ovate. Raceme short or long; peduncle 1-3.5 cm; bracts lanceolate, 2-3 mm, strigose. Flowers few to many, those on lower part of stem sometimes solitary or 1 pair between 2 axils; bracteoles lanceolate, 2-3 mm, hirsute. Calyx 4-6 mm, densely long hir­sute and strigose, usually 2-lipped; lobes 5, lanceolate, upper 2 connate to above middle, lower 3 separate, all densely white villous. Corolla purple, light purple, or white, 4.5-8(-10) mm; standard obovate-suborbicular, base clawed, apex slightly emar­ginate and usually reflexed; wings crenate, base narrow, with claws and auricles; keels obliquely obovate, with short claws. Ovary with undeveloped glands at base, hairy. Legume succu­lent, oblong, slightly curved, pendulous, 40-75 × 8-15 mm, densely silky hairy. Seeds 2-5, elliptic, suborbicular, or ovate to oblong, ca. 10 × 5-8 mm, many colored; testa smooth; hilum obvious, elliptic. Fl. Jun-Jul, fr. Jul-Sep. 2n = 40.
Cultivated throughout China [now cultivated throughout temper­ate and tropical regions].
It has been estimated that Glycine max, soybean, provides ca. 35% of human protein (X. Bao et al., FAO/IBPGR Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 94/95: 1-3. 1993). It is also an important source of oil and used extensively industrially.
There seems very little doubt that Glycine max, not known as a wild plant, has been selected from the following species, G. soja. It has been confused nomenclaturally with that species.
 






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