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山莓Rubus corchorifolius

时间:2018-07-01 09:37来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 山莓 学名( Scientific Name ): Rubus corchorifolius L. f. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 树莓、山抛子、牛奶泡、撒秧泡 异名( Synonym ): Rubus corchorifolius f. roseolus Z. X
中文名(Chinese Name):山莓
学名(Scientific Name):Rubus corchorifolius L. f.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):树莓、山抛子、牛奶泡、撒秧泡
异名(Synonym):Rubus corchorifolius f. roseolus Z. X. Yu  Rubus corchorifolius var. glaber Matsum.  Rubus involucratus Focke  Rubus corchorifolius var. oliveri (Miq.) Focke  Rubus arisanensis Hayata  Rubus arisanensis var. horishaensis Hayata  Rubus althaeoides Hance  Rubus kerrifolius H. Lév. et Vaniot  Rubus suishaensis Hayata  Rubus villosus Thunb.  Rubus oliveri Miq.  Rubus otophorus Franch.  Rubus vaniotii H. Lév. et Vaniot  Rubus shinkoensis Hayata  Rubus kerriifolius H.L‚v. & Vaniot  Rubus corchorifolius f. glaber (Matsum.) Sugim., nom. illegit.  Rubus corchorifolius var. villosus (Thunb.) Kuntze  Rubus corchorifolius subtaxon typicus Focke
科属(Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)悬钩子属
形态特征(Description):直立灌木,高1-3米;枝具皮刺,幼时被柔毛。单叶,卵形至卵状披针形,长5-12厘米,宽2.5-5厘米,顶端渐尖,基部微心形,有时近截形或近圆形,上面色较浅,沿叶脉有细柔毛,下面色稍深,幼时密被细柔毛,逐渐脱落至老时近无毛,沿中脉疏生小皮刺,边缘不分裂或3裂,通常不育枝上的叶3裂,有不规则锐锯齿或重锯齿,基部具3脉;叶柄长1-2厘米,疏生小皮刺,幼时密生细柔毛;托叶线状披针形,具柔毛。花单生或少数生于短枝上;花梗长0.6-2厘米,具细柔毛;花直径可达3厘米;花萼外密被细柔毛,无刺;萼片卵形或三角状卵形,长5-8毫米,顶端急尖至短渐尖;花瓣长圆形或椭圆形,白色,顶端圆钝,长9-12毫米,宽6-8毫米,长于萼片;雄蕊多数,花丝宽扁;雌蕊多数,子房有柔毛。果实由很多小核果组成,近球形或卵球形,直径1-1.2厘米,红色,密被细柔毛;核具皱纹。花期2-3月,果期4-6月。
分布(Distribution):除东北、甘肃、青海、新疆、西藏外,全国均有分布。普遍生于向阳山坡、溪边、山谷、荒地和疏密灌丛中潮湿处,海拔200-2200米。朝鲜、日本、缅甸、越南也有。
用途(Use):果味甜美,含糖、苹果酸、柠檬酸及维生素C等,可供生食、制果酱及酿酒。果、根及叶入药,有活血、解毒、止血之效;根皮、茎皮、叶可提取栲胶。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 234     
Rubus corchorifolius Linnaeus f., Suppl. Pl. 263. 1782.
山莓 shan mei | Rosaceae  | Rubus
Rubus althaeoides Hance; R. arisanensis Hayata; R. arisanensis var. horishaensis Hayata; R. corchorifolius var. glaber Matsumura; R. corchorifolius var. oliveri (Miquel) Focke; R. corchorifolius f. roseolus Z. X. Yu; R. involucratus Focke; R. kerrifolius H. Léveillé & Vaniot; R. oliveri Miquel; R. otophorus Franchet; R. shinkoensis Hayata; R. suishaensis Hayata; R. vaniotii H. Léveillé & Vaniot; R. villosus Thunberg.
Shrubs erect, 1–3 m tall. Branchlets brownish or dark brown to blackish brown, cylindric, prickly, finely hairy, glabrescent. Leaves simple; petiole 1–2 cm, with dense fine, soft hairs when young, with sparse, minute prickles; stipules linear-lanceolate or linear, 5–7 mm, soft hairy; blade ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 5–12 × 2.5–5 cm, abaxially somewhat dark, densely finely pubescent when young, gradually glabrescent, subglabrescent, with sparse, small prickles along midvein, adaxially pale, finely pubescent along veins, base somewhat cordate, sometimes subtruncate or subrounded, margin undivided or 3-lobed, usually 3-divided on sterile branches, irregularly sharply serrate to doubly serrate, apex acuminate. Inflorescences 1-flowered or few flowers terminal on short lateral branchlets. Pedicel (0.6–) 1–2 cm, finely pubescent. Flowers 1.5–2(–3) cm in diam. Calyx abaxially densely finely pubescent, unarmed; sepals ovate or triangular-ovate, 5–8 × 2.5–4 mm, apex acute to shortly acuminate. Petals white or pinkish, oblong or elliptic, 0.9–1.2 cm × 6–8 mm, longer than sepals, glabrous, base clawed, apex obtuse. Stamens much shorter than petals; filaments short, complanate. Pistils many, slightly shorter than stamens; ovary pubescent. Aggregate fruit of many drupelets, red, subglobose or ovoid-globose, 1–1.2 cm in diam., densely finely pubescent; pyrenes rugose. Fl. Feb–Apr, fr. Apr–Jun. 2n = 14.
Sunny slopes, stream sides, montane valleys, thickets, waste places; 200--2600 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu (except NE), Guizhou, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shandong, Shanxi, S Shaanxi (Qin Ling), Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang, Xizang [Japan, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam].
The fresh fruit are used for making jam, drinks, and wine. The fruit, seeds, and roots are used in medicine. The stems and roots are a source of tannin.
A form with semidouble or double flowers has been named Rubus corchorifolius f. semiplenus Z. X. Yu. It occurs in Jiangxi and grows on thickets on slopes of hills at about 50 m in elevation.
 




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