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舞鹤草 Maianthemum bifolium

时间:2014-01-30 15:47作者:徐晔春 点击: 次 标签: 百合科 Liliaceae Maianthemum 舞鹤草属
  中文名(Chinese Name):舞鹤草
学名(Scientific Name): Maianthemum bifolium
英文名(English Common Name):false lily of the valley
别名(Chinese Common Name):二叶舞鹤草
异名(Synonym): Convallaria bifolia L.  Maia bifolia (L.) Salisb.  Maianthemum convallaria F.H.Wigg.  Maianthemum cordifolium Moench  Monophyllon lobelii Delarbre  Maianthemum nipponicum Nakai  Maianthemum smilacinum Montandon  Styrandra bifolia (L.) Raf.  Styrandra petiolaris Raf.  Smilacina cordifolia (Moench) Becker  Sciophila convallarioides Wibel  Unifolium bifolium (L.) Greene  Unifolium quadrifidum (Lam.) All.  Valentinia bifolia (L.) Baill.  Convallaria cordifolia (Moench) Stokes  Convallaria monophylla Oeder  Convallaria pulchella Salisb.  Convallaria quadrifida Lam.  Convallaria tetrapetala Gilib.  Unifolium bifolium var. canadense Farw.  Unifolium bifolium subvar. hirtellum Farw.  Smilacina bifolia var. canadensis (Desf.) A.Gray  Unifolium bifolium f. monophyllum Farw.  Smilacina biflora
科属(Family & Genus):百合科(Liliaceae)舞鹤草属
形态特征(Description):根状茎细长,一有时分叉,长可达20厘米或更长,直径1-2毫米,节上有少数根,节间长1-3厘米。茎高8-20(-25) 厘米,无毛或散生柔毛。基生叶有长达10厘米的叶柄,到花期已凋萎;茎生叶通常2枚,极少3枚,互生于茎的上部,三角状卵形,长3-8(-10)厘米,宽2-5(-9)厘米,先端急尖至渐尖,基部心形,湾缺张开,下面脉上有柔毛或散生微柔毛,边缘有细小的锯齿状乳突或具柔毛;叶柄长1-2厘米,常有柔毛。总状花序直立,长3-5厘米,约有10-25朵花;花序轴有柔毛或乳头状突起;花白色,直径3-4毫米,单生或成对。花梗细,长约5毫米,顶端有关节;花被片矩圆形,长2-2.5毫米,有1脉;花丝短于花被片;花药卵形,长0.5毫米,黄白色;子房球形;花柱长约1毫米。浆果直径3-6毫米。种子卵圆形,直径2-3毫米,种皮黄色,有颗粒状皱纹。花期5-7月,果期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):产东北、内蒙古、河北、山西、青海、甘肃、陕西和四川。生高山阴坡林下。朝鲜、日本、俄罗斯和北美也有
用途(Use):
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 24 Page 218
Maianthemum bifolium (Linnaeus) F. W. Schmidt, Fl. Boem. Cent. 4: 55. 1794.
舞鹤草 wu he cao| Liliaceae  | Maianthemum
Convallaria bifolia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 316. 1753; Smilacina bifolia (Linnaeus) Desfontaines.
Plants 8--20(--25) cm tall. Rhizome sometimes forked, to 20 cm × 1--2 mm. Stem sometimes scattered papillose-pubescent. Basal leaf withered at anthesis; petiole to 10 cm. Cauline leaves usually 2, borne distally to apically on stem; petiole 1--2 cm, often papillose-pubescent; leaf blade deltoid-ovate, 3--8(--10) × 1--5(--9) cm, abaxial veins puberulent, base cordate, margin minutely denticulate-papillose or puberulent. Raceme erect, 3--5 cm, 10--25-flowered; rachis papillose-pubescent; bracts minute. Flowers solitary or paired; pedicel ca. 5 mm, slender, articulate apically. Perianth white; segments oblong, 2--2.5 × 1.5--1.8 mm. Stamens 1.6--2.1 mm. Style ca. 1 mm. Berries red at maturity, 3--6 mm in diam. Seeds with yellow testa. Fl. May--Jul, fr. Aug--Sep. 2 n = 28, 30, 36, 42, 54, 88.
Forests, thickets, moist places, hillsides along streams; 500--2700 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, N Xinjiang [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia; Europe, North America].
Maianthemum dilatatum (A. W. Wood) A. Nelson & J. F. Macbride (Bot. Gaz. 61: 30. 1916), from Japan, Mongolia, E Russia, and NW North America, probably occurs in China. In Russia and Japan, M. dilatatum is sympatric with M. bifolium and, in Japan, there occur intermediate forms which may have derived from hybridization between the two species (Kawano, pers. obs.). Such plants in the Russian Far East have been called M. intermedium Voroschilov (Izv. Glavn. Bot. Sada RSFSR 38, 50. 1960) and may also occur in China.






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