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紫牡丹Paeonia delavayi

时间:2013-12-08 21:28作者:徐晔春 点击: 次 标签: 毛茛科 芍药属 Paeonia
  中文名(Chinese Name):紫牡丹
学名(Scientific Name):Paeonia delavayi Franch.
英文名(English Common Name):dian mu dan
别名(Chinese Common Name):野牡丹、滇牡丹、黄牡丹
异名(Synonym):Paeonia delavayi var. angustiloba Rehd. et Wils.  Paeonia delavayi var. lutea (Delavay ex Franch.) Finet et Gagnep.  Paeonia potaninii Kom.  Paeonia potaninii var. trollioides (Stapf ex Stern) Stern  Paeonia delavayi var. alba Bean  Paeonia delavayi var. atropurpurea Schipcz.  Paeonia trollioides Stapf ex Stern  Paeonia lutea Delavay ex Franch.  Paeonia angustiloba Stapf ex Stern  Paeonia potaninii f. alba (Bean) Stern  Paeonia handel-mazzettii Halda  Paeonia lutea var. superba (Lemoine) auct.  Paeonia delavayi f. alba (Bean) S.G.Haw  Paeonia delavayi f. lutea (Delavay ex Franch.) S.G.Haw  Paeonia delavayi f. superba Lemoine  Paeonia delavayi f. trollioides (Stapf ex Stern) S.G.Haw  Paeonia forrestii var. trollioides (Stapf ex Stern) Saunders  Paeonia forrestii Saunders  Paeonia franchetii Halda  Paeonia franchetti Halda
科属Family & Genus):毛茛科(Ranunculaceae)芍药属
形态特征Description):亚灌木,全体无毛。茎高1.5米;当年生小枝草质,小枝基部具数枚鳞片。叶为二回三出复叶;叶片轮廓为宽卵形或卵形,长15-20厘米,羽状分裂,裂片披针形至长圆状披针形,宽0.7-2厘米;叶柄长4-8.5厘米。花2-5朵,生枝顶和叶腋,直径6-8厘米;苞片3-4(-6),披针形,大小不等;萼片3-4,宽卵形,大小不等;花瓣9(-12 ),红色、红紫色或黄色,倒卵形,长3-4厘米,宽1.5-2.5厘米;雄蕊长0.8-1.2厘米,花丝长5-7毫米,干时紫色;花盘肉质,包住心皮基部,顶端裂片三角形或钝圆;心皮2-5,无毛。蓇葖长约3-3.5厘米,直径1.2-2厘米。花期5月;果期7-8月。
分布(Distribution):分布于云南、四川及西藏,生海拔2300-3700米的山地阳坡及草丛中。
用途(Use):根药用,根皮(“赤丹皮”)可治吐血、尿血、血痢、痛经等症;去掉根皮的部分(“云白芍”)可治胸腹胁肋疼痛、泻痢腹痛、自汗盗汗等症(云南省药品标准)。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 6 Page 130     
Paeonia delavayi Franchet, Bull. Soc. Bot. France. 33: 382. 1886.
滇牡丹 dian mu dan| Paeoniaceae  | Paeonia
Paeonia delavayi var. alba Bean; P. delavayi subsp. angustiloba (Rehder & E. H. Wilson) B. A. Shen; P. delavayi var. angustiloba Rehder & E. H. Wilson; P. delavayi var. atropurpurea Schipczinsky; P. delavayi subsp. lutea (Delavay ex Franchet) B. A. Shen; P. delavayi var. lutea (Delavay ex Franchet) Finet & Gagnepain; P. delavayi var. lutea f. superba Lemoine; P. franchetii Halda; P. handel-mazzettii Halda; P. lutea Delavay ex Franchet; P. potaninii Komarov; P. potaninii f. alba (Bean) Stern; P. potaninii var. trollioides (Stapf ex Stern) Stern; P. trollioides Stapf ex Stern.
Shrubs 0.2--1.8 m tall, glabrous throughout. Roots tuberous. Turions present. Stems brown-gray. Proximal leaves 2-ternate; leaflets always segmented, base usually decurrent; segments again segmented or lobed; ultimate segments and lobes (17--)25--100(--300), linear or linear-lanceolate, 0.5--10 × 0.2--2.7 cm, margin entire or occasionally dentate. Flowers 1--3 per shoot, both terminal and axillary, basipetal, ± pendulous, single, 6--10 cm wide. Bracts 1--5, varying in shape and size. Sepals 2--9, green abaxially, green with a pink base adaxially, or wholly purple or purple-red, triangular-orbicular or orbicular, 1.3--3.7 × 0.6--2.3 cm, apex rounded to mucronate or acuminate. Petals (4--)7--11(--13), yellow, yellow with a red or purple-red spot at base, red, dark red, or dark purple-red, sometimes white, green-yellow, yellow with a red margin, or orange. Filaments yellow, pink-red, or dark purple-red; anthers yellow, pink, red, or dark purple-red. Disc yellow, red, or dark red, annular or shortly cylindric. Carpels 2--5(or 6--8); ovary usually green, sometimes purple. Stigmas green-yellow, yellow, red, or purple-red. Follicles brown at maturity, oblong-ovoid, 2--3.5 × 1--1.5 cm. Seeds brown-black. Fl. May--Jun, fr. Aug--Sep. 2n = 10*.
* Dry Pinus or Quercus woods, thickets, rarely grassy slopes or glades in virgin Picea forests; 2000--3600 m; W Sichuan, SE Xizang, C and N Yunnan.
 




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