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构棘Maclura cochinchinensis

TAG标签: 桑科 Moraceae 柘属 Maclura
时间:2018-07-01 20:54来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):构棘 学名( Scientific Name ): Maclura cochinchinensis (Lour.) Corner 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 葨芝 异名( Synonym ): Cudrania cochinchinensis (Lour.) Kudo et Masam. Cu
中文名(Chinese Name):构棘
学名(Scientific Name):Maclura cochinchinensis (Lour.) Corner 
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):葨芝
异名(Synonym):Cudrania cochinchinensis (Lour.) Kudo et Masam.  Cudrania obovata Trécul  Cudrania integra F. T. Wang et T. Tang  Cudrania javanensis Tréc  Cudrania rectispina Hance  Maclura gerontogea Siebold et Zucc.  Maclura cochinchinensis var. gerontogea (Siebold et Zucc.) Ohashi  Vanieria cochinchinensis Lour.  Vanieria cochinchinensis var. gerontogea (Siebold et Zucc.) Nakai  Trophis spinosa Roxb. ex Willd.  Cudrania cochinchinensis var. gerontogea (Sieb. et Zucc.) Kudo et Masamune
科属Family & Genus):桑科(Moraceae)柘属
形态特征(Description):直立或攀援状灌木;枝无毛,具粗壮弯曲无叶的腋生刺,刺长约1厘米。叶革质,椭 圆状披针形或长圆形,长3-8厘米,宽2-2.5厘米,全缘,先端钝或短渐尖,基部楔 形,两面无毛,侧脉7-10对;叶柄长约1厘米。花雌雄异株,雌雄花序均为具苞片的 球形头状花序,每花具2-4个苞片,苞片锥形,内面具2个黄色腺体,苞片常附着于花 被片上;雄花序直径约6-10毫米,花被片4,不相等,雄蕊4,花药短,在芽时直立, 退化雌蕊锥形或盾或形;雌花序微被毛,花被片顶部厚,分离或万部合生,基有2黄色像 体。聚合果肉质,直径2-5厘米,表面微被毛,成熟时橙红色,核果卵圆形,成熟时褐 色,光滑。花期4-5月,果期6-7月。
分布(Distribution):产我国东南部至西南部的亚热带地区,多生于村庄附近或荒野。东南亚等地也有。
用途(Use):本种农村常作绿篱用;木材煮汁可作染料,茎皮及根皮药用,称“黄龙脱壳”。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 5 Page 35
Maclura cochinchinensis (Loureiro) Corner, Gard. Bull. Singapore. 19: 239. 1962.
构棘 gou ji    | Moraceae  | Maclura
Vanieria cochinchinensis Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 2: 564. 1790; Cudrania cochinchinensis (Loureiro) Kudô & Masamune; C. integra F. T. Wang & T. Tang; C. javanensis Trécul; C. obovata Trécul; C. rectispina Hance; Maclura gerontogea Siebold & Zuccarini; Trophis spinosa Roxburgh ex Willdenow; Vanieria cochinchinensis var. gerontogea (Siebold & Zuccarini) Nakai.
Shrubs, erect or scandent. Branches glabrous; spines curved or straight, to ca. 2 cm, sometimes very inconspicuous. Petiole ca. 1 cm; leaf blade elliptic-lanceolate to oblong, 3-8 × 2-2.5 cm, papery to leathery, glabrous, base cuneate, margin entire, apex rounded to shortly acuminate; secondary veins 7-10 on each side of midvein, tertiary veins reticulate. Male inflorescences a capitulum, 6-10 mm in diam., pedunculate. Female inflorescences pubescent; peduncle to 1 cm. Male flowers: calyx lobes 4, unequal; anthers short; pistillode pyramidal or shield-shaped. Female flowers: calyx lobes free or basally connate, apex thick. Fruiting syncarp reddish orange when mature, 2-5 cm in diam., pubescent. Drupes brown when mature, ovoid, smooth. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Jun-Jul.
Near villages. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, India, Indochina, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sikkim, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia, Pacific Islands].
This species is widespread and variable The binomial has often been ascribed to Kudô & Masamune (Ann. Rep. Taihoku Bot. Gard. 2: 27. 1932.) but they mentioned only var. gerontogea and thus did not validate any new name as they ascribed the variety to a then non-existent binomial. The identity of Cudrania chinensis Loureiro, published simultaneously with Maclura cochinchinensis Loureiro, is uncertain as no type material has been found, but the most likely possibility is that it is a spineless form of this species.




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