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大叶碎米荠Cardamine macrophylla

时间:2013-09-05 17:11来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):大叶碎米荠 学名( Scientific Name ): Cardamine macrophylla Adams 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 华中碎米荠 异名( Synonym ): Cardamine urbaniana O. E. Schulz Cardamine macrop
中文名(Chinese Name):大叶碎米荠
学名(Scientific Name):Cardamine macrophylla Adams
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):华中碎米荠
异名(Synonym):Cardamine urbaniana O. E. Schulz  Cardamine macrophylla var. polyphylla (D. Don) T. Y. Cheo et R. C. Fang  Cardamine macrophylla var. diplodonta T. Y. Cheo  Cardamine macrophylla var. crenata Trautv. et Mery.  Cardamine macrophylla subsp. polyphylla (D. Don) O. E. Schulz  Cardamine sachalinensis Miyabe et Miyake  Dentaria willdenowii Tausch  Cardamine macrophylla var. sikkimensis Hook. f. et T. Anderson  Cardamine macrophylla var. dentariifolia Hook. f. et T. Anderson  Cardamine macrophylla var. foliosa Hook. f. et T. Anderson  Cardamine macrophylla var. lobata Hook. f. et T. Anderson  Cardamine macrophylla var. moupinensis Franch.  Cardamine sinomanshurica (Kitag.) Kitag.  Dentaria sinomanshurica Kitag.  Dentaria wallichii G. Don  Dentaria gmelinii Tausch  Dentaria macrophylla (Willd.) Bunge ex Maxim.  Cardamine sino-manshurica (Kitag.) Kitag.  Dentaria sino-manschurica Kitag.  Cardamine gmelinii Tausch  Cardamine dentariifolia Royle ex Hook.f. & Thomson  Cardamine foliosa Wall.  Cardamine willdenowii Tausch  Cardamine macrophylla f. hirsuta Andrz. ex O.Fedsch. & B.Fedsch.  Cardamine macrophylla f. pauciflora O.E.Schulz  Cardamine macrophylla var. decumbens Trautv. & C.A.Mey.  Cardamine macrophylla var. exaltata Trautv. & C.A.Mey.  Cardamine macrophylla var. serrata O.E.Schulz  Dentaria hirsutuloa Andrz. ex DC.  Dentaria ochroleuca Gaudin ex DC.
科属(Family & Genus):十字花科(Cruciferae)碎米荠属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,高30-100厘米。根状茎匍匐延伸,密被纤维状的须根。茎较粗壮,圆柱形,直立,有时基部倾卧,不分枝或上部分枝,表面有沟棱。茎生叶通常4-5枚,有叶柄,长2.5-5厘米;小叶4-5对,顶生小叶与侧生小叶的形状及大小相似,小叶椭圆形或卵状披针形,长4-9厘米,宽1-2.5厘米,顶端钝或短渐尖,边缘具比较整齐的锐锯齿或钝锯齿,顶生小叶基部楔形,无小叶柄、侧生小叶基部稍不等,生于最上部的1对小叶基部常下延,生于最下部的1对有时有极短的柄;小叶上面毛少、下面散生短柔毛,有时两面均无毛。总状花序多花,花梗长10-14毫米;外轮萼片淡红色,长椭圆形,长5-6.5毫米,边缘膜质,外面有毛或无毛,内轮萼片基部囊状;花瓣淡紫色、紫红色,少有白色,倒卵形,长9-14毫米,顶端圆或微凹,向基部渐狭成爪;花丝扁平;子房柱状,花柱短。长角果扁平,长35-45毫米,宽2-3毫米;果瓣平坦无毛,有时带紫色,花柱很短,柱头微凹;果梗直立开展,长10-25毫米。种子椭圆形,长约3毫米,褐色。花期5-6月,果期7-8月。
分布(Distribution):产内蒙、河北、山西、湖北、陕西、甘肃、青海、四川、贵州、浙江、湖南、江西、陕西、云南及西藏等省区。生于海拔1600-4200米的山坡灌丛下、沟边、石隙、高山草坡水湿处。
用途(Use):全草药用,利小便、止痛及治败血病;嫩苗可食用,亦为良好的饲料。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 8 Page 89
Cardamine macrophylla Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 3: 484. 1800.
大叶碎米荠 da ye sui mi ji| Brassicaceae  | Cardamine
 Cardamine macrophylla
Credit: Harvard University Herbaria
Cardamine macrophylla var. crenata Trautvetter; C. macrophylla var. dentariifolia J. D. Hooker & T. Anderson; C. macrophylla var. diplodonta T. Y. Cheo; C. macrophylla var. foliosa J. D. Hooker & T. Anderson; C. macrophylla var. lobata J. D. Hooker & T. Anderson; C. macrophylla var. moupinensis Franchet; C. macrophylla subsp. polyphylla (D. Don) O. E. Schulz; C. macrophylla var. polyphylla (D. Don) T. Y. Cheo & R. C. Fang; C. macrophylla var. sikkimensis J. D. Hooker & T. Anderson; C. polyphylla D. Don (1825), not O. E. Schulz (1903); C. sachalinensis Miyabe & Miyake; C. sinomanshurica (Kitagawa) Kitagawa; C. urbaniana O. E. Schulz; Dentaria gmelinii Tausch; D. macrophylla (Willdenow) Bunge ex Maximowicz; D. sinomanshurica Kitagawa; D. wallichii G. Don; D. willdenowii Tausch.
Herbs perennial, (20-)30-95(-115) cm tall. Rhizomes creeping, not scaly, slender or stout and with tuberous knots, 2-10(-30) mm in diam., not stoloniferous. Stems stout or slender, erect, simple or rarely branched above, glabrous, hirsute, or pilose. Rhizomal leaves (4-)10-40(-50) cm; petiole (1-)3-20(-25) cm; terminal leaflet lanceolate, elliptic, oblong, ovate, or obovate, (1-)2-15(-25) × (0.5-)1-3.5(-5) cm, sessile or petiolulate, base cuneate, margin serrate, crenate, dentate, or rarely 3-5-lobed, apex acuminate, acute, or subobtuse; lateral leaflets (1 or)2-6 pairs, similar to terminal but smaller. Cauline leaves 3-12(-18); petiole (1-)2-5(-6.5) cm, not auriculate at base; terminal leaflet narrowly ovate, lanceolate, elliptic, or oblong, rarely obovate or lanceolate-linear, (2-)4-12(-20) × 1-4(-5) cm, glabrous or pubescent, sessile or on a petiolule to 1 cm, base cuneate, margin ciliolate and crenate, serrate, or serrulate, rarely subentire or doubly serrate, apex acute, rarely acuminate; lateral leaflets 2-7(-11) pairs, sessile or petiolulate, base cuneate or obliquely decurrent, similar to but slightly smaller than terminal leaflet. Racemes 10-30-flowered. Fruiting pedicels ascending or rarely divaricate, (0.3-)0.8-2.5(-3.1) cm, straight, stout. Sepals oblong, 3.5-6.5(-8) × 1.5-3 mm. Petals purple or lilac, obovate or spatulate, (0.8-)1-1.7 cm × 3.5-8 mm, apex rounded or rarely subemarginate. Median filament pairs 7-9(-11) mm, lateral pair 6-7 mm; anthers oblong, 1-2(-2.5) mm. Ovules 8-12(-16) per ovary. Fruit linear, (2.2-)2.5-6(-7) cm × 1.5-2.5(-3) mm; gynophore 0.5-3 mm; valves smooth, sparsely pubescent or glabrous; style (1-)2-6.5(-9) mm. Seeds brown, ovoid or oblong, (1.5-)2-3(-4) × 1-1.7(-2) mm. Fl. (Mar-) Apr-Oct, fr. May-Oct. 2n = 64, 80, 96.
Damp forests, river banks, tundra, rock crevices, meadows, damp woodlands, thickets, streamsides, valleys, ravines, mountain slopes, among boulders; 500-4200 m. Anhui, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, India, Japan, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Sikkim].
The above first records from Anhui, Henan, Hunan, and Jiangxi are based on Yao 8927 (A), Boufford et al. 26199 (A, MO), Handel-Mazzetti (E, W, WU), and Tan Ceming 9604090 (MO), respectively.
Cardamine macrophylla is highly variable, especially in leaflet number, shape, size, base, and margin. An examination of several hundred specimens from the entire range of the species reveals that only a small number of the variants has been recognized formally in China, that the variation does not show any correlation among characters and/or geography, that some of the variants (on which varieties are based) occur within the same population, and that a thorough study at the population level is needed before the species is divided into infraspecific taxa. For example, leaflet number, in which var. polyphylla is said to have four or more pairs, is quite variable, though a maximum of seven pairs (e.g., Yü 22173, at A) was found in China, whereas serrate, serrulate, and doubly serrate leaflets were observed in one population (Al-Shehbaz et al. 9312, B, BM, E, G, K, MO). Serrate and doubly serrate leaflets also occur sporadically in C. leucantha and C. tangutorum.
Syntypes of Cardamine urbaniana represent robust plants with thick rhizomes and very large leaves. Schulz (Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 32: 280-623. 1903) separated the species from C. macrophylla primarily on the basis of its having thick rhizomes and sessile terminal leaflets. However, these two characters, as well as the cuneate vs. decurrent base of the lateral leaflets, do not correlate, and one finds various combinations of them in populations from Bhutan, China, Nepal, and Sikkim. Cardamine urbaniana is here lectotypfied on Henry 5635 (lectotype, GH; isolectotypes, G, K, US). The isolectotype at K has leaflets ca. 20 × 5 cm, which is the largest examined in the Brassicaceae.
Cardamine macrophylla is used medicinally, and the young parts are eaten as a vegetable.





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