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弹裂碎米荠Cardamine impatiens

时间:2013-09-05 17:10来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):弹裂碎米荠 学名( Scientific Name ): Cardamine impatiens L. 英文名( English Common Name ): narrowleaf bittercress 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 水花菜 异名( Synonym ): Cardamine impatiens var. dasycarpa
中文名(Chinese Name):弹裂碎米荠
学名(Scientific Name):Cardamine impatiens L.
英文名(English Common Name):narrowleaf bittercress
别名(Chinese Common Name):水花菜
异名(Synonym):Cardamine impatiens var. dasycarpa (M. Bieb.) T. Y. Cheo et R. C. Fang  Cardamine glaphyropoda O. E. Schulz  Cardamine glaphyropoda var. crenata T. Y. Cheo et R. C. Fang  Cardamine nakaiana H. Lév.  Cardamine basisagittata W. T. Wang  Cardamine impatiens var. angustifolia O. E. Schulz  Cardamine impatiens var. eriocarpa DC.  Cardamine impatiens var. fumaria H. Lév.  Cardamine impatiens var. microphylla O. E. Schulz  Cardamine impatiens var. pilosa O. E. Schulz  Cardamine senanensis Franch. et Sav.  Cardamine dasycarpa Bieb.  Cardamine impatiens subsp. elongata O. E. Schulz  Cardamine impatiens var. obtusifolia (Kuaf.) O. E. Schulg  Cardamine pectinata Pall. ex DC.  Cardamine impatiens subsp. impatiens L.  Cardamine impatiens subsp. pectinata (Pall. ex DC.) Stoj. & Stef.  Cardamine impatiens var. impatiens L.  Cardamine impatiens var. pectinata (Pall. ex DC.) Trautv.  Cardamine impatiens var. angustifolia prol. elongata O.E. Schulz  Cardamine impatiens f. humilis Peterm.  Cardamine impatiens var. acutifolia Knaf  Cardamine impatiens var. longipes Hatus.  Cardamine impatiens var. minor Rouy & Foucaud  Cardamine impatiens var. tenuissima Honda  Cardamine saxatilis Salisb.  Crucifera impatiens E.H.L.Krause  Ghinia impatiens Bubani
科属(Family & Genus):十字花科(Cruciferae)碎米荠属
形态特征(Description):二年或一年生草木,高20-60厘米。茎直立,不分枝或有时上部分枝,表面有沟棱,有少数短柔毛或无毛,着生多数羽状复叶。基生叶叶柄长1-3厘米,两缘通常有短柔毛,基部稍扩大,有1对托叶状耳,小叶2-8对,顶生小叶卵形,长6-13毫米,宽4-8毫米,边缘有不整齐钝齿状浅裂,基部楔形,小叶柄显著,侧生小叶与顶生的相似,自上而下渐小,通常生于最下的1-2对近于披针形,全缘,都有显著的小叶柄;茎生叶有柄,基部也有抱茎线形弯曲的耳,长3-8毫米,顶端渐尖,缘毛显著,小叶5-8对,顶生小叶卵形或卵状披针形,侧生小叶与之相似,但较小;最上部的茎生叶小叶片较狭,边缘少齿裂或近于全缘;全部小叶散生短柔毛,有时无毛,边缘均有缘毛。总状花序顶生和腋生,花多数,形小,直径约2毫米,果期花序极延长,花梗纤细,长2-6毫米;萼片长椭圆形,长约2毫米;花瓣白色,狭长椭圆形,长2-3毫米,基部稍狭;雌蕊柱状,无毛,花柱极短,柱头较花柱稍宽。长角果狭条形而扁,长20-28毫米;果瓣无毛,成熟时自下而上弹性开裂;果梗直立开展或水平开展,长10-15毫米,无毛。种子椭圆形,长约1.3毫米,边缘有极狭的翅。 花期4-6月,果期5-7月。
分布(Distribution):产东北、华东、西北、西南等地,生于海拔150-3500米的路边、沟谷、水边或阴湿地。
用途(Use):全草可供药用,民间治妇女经血不调;种子可榨油,含油率36%。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 8 Page 103 
Cardamine impatiens Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 655. 1753.
弹裂碎米荠 tan lie sui mi ji | Brassicaceae  | Cardamine
Cardamine basisagittata W. T. Wang; C. dasycarpa Marschall von Bieberstein; C. glaphyropoda O. E. Schulz; C. glaphyropoda var. crenata T. Y. Cheo & R. C. Fang; C. impatiens var. angustifolia O. E. Schulz; C. impatiens var. dasycarpa (Marschall von Bieberstein) T. Y. Cheo & R. C. Fang; C. impatiens subsp. elongata O. E. Schulz; C. impatiens var. eriocarpa de Candolle; C. impatiens var. fumaria H. Léveillé; C. impatiens var. microphylla O. E. Schulz; C. impatiens var. obtusifolia Knaf; C. impatiens var. pilosa O. E. Schulz; C. nakaiana H. Léveillé; C. senanensis Franchet & Savatier.
Herbs biennial or rarely annual, (12-)20-65(-90) cm tall, glabrous or rarely sparsely pubescent near base. Stems erect, simple at base, usually branched above, angled, sometimes flexuous. Basal leaves rosulate, often withered by flowering; petiole 1-4 cm, not auriculate; leaf blade pinnatisect and appearing compound. Cauline leaves to 15 per stem; petiole auriculate, 2-6 cm; auricles lanceolate or linear, 1-8(-10) × (0.1-)0.3-1.8(-2.2) mm, often ciliate; leaf blade (1-)3-18(-22) × (0.6-)1-5.5(-7) cm, pinnatisect; terminal lobe orbicular, obovate, ovate, or lanceolate, 1-4(-5) × 0.5-1.7 cm, with a petiolule to 5 mm, entire or obscurely to strongly 3-5(-9)-toothed or -lobed; lateral lobes (4-)6-11 on each side of midvein, oblong, lanceolate, or ovate, sessile or long petiolulate, smaller than terminal lobe, margin dentate, sublaciniate, or rarely entire; uppermost leaves with narrower segments. Fruiting pedicels divaricate or ascending, 3.5-12(-15) mm, slender. Sepals oblong, 1.2-2(-2.5) × 0.7-1(-1.2) mm. Petals white, oblanceolate, 1.5-4(-5) × 0.6-1.2 mm, rarely absent. Stamens 6; filaments 2-3(-4) mm; anthers ovate, 0.3-0.5 mm. Ovules 10-30 per ovary. Fruit linear, (1-)1.6-3(-3.5) cm × 0.9-1.5 mm; valves glabrous or rarely pilose, torulose; style 0.6-1.6(-2) mm. Seeds brown, oblong, 1.1-1.5 × 0.8-1 mm, compressed, sometimes apically narrowly winged. Fl. and fr. Feb-Jul. 2n = 16, 32.



Shady or moist slopes, streamsides, fields, roadsides; near sea level to 4000 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Japan, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Sikkim, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan; SW Asia, Europe; naturalized in S Africa and North America].
The division of Cardamine impatiens into infraspecific taxa based on the size, shape, margin, and indumentum of leaf lobes is definitely artificial. Leaf characters do not correlate in any pattern with geographical distribution. In fact, some of the morphological extremes described as taxa native to Asia appear sporadically in the native European or naturalized American populations. The so-called var. dasycarpa, which was described from the Caucasus, represents a form that can be found within populations of typical C. impatiens. Furthermore, a critical evaluation of the type collections of C. basisagittata and C. glaphyropoda shows beyond doubt that they are merely minor variants of C. impatiens. Wang (Acta. Bot. Yunnan. 9: 16. 1987) designated Smith 2969 (UPS) as the lectotype of C. glaphyropoda, but the specimen at B would have been a more appropriate choice because it was annotated in Schulz's handwriting.
This species is used medicinally and as a source of seed oil.

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