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马兰Kalimeris indica

时间:2013-07-23 14:31来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):马兰 学名( Scientific Name ): Kalimeris indica (L.) Sch. Bip. 英文名( English Common Name ): Indian aster 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 马兰头、路边菊 异名( Synonym ): Kalimeris indica (Linn.) Sch.-Bip.




中文名(Chinese Name):马兰
学名(Scientific Name):Kalimeris indica (L.) Sch. Bip.
英文名(English Common Name):Indian aster
别名(Chinese Common Name):马兰头、路边菊
异名(Synonym):Kalimeris indica (Linn.) Sch.-Bip.  Asteromoea integrifolia Loes.  Aster yangtzensis Migo  Aster cantonensis (Lour.) Courtois  Asteromoea cantonensis (Lour.) Matsum.  Boltonia cantonensis (Lour.) Franch. et Sav.  Boltonia indica (L.) Benth.  Hisutsua cantonensis (Lour.) DC.  Hisutsua serrata Hook. et Arn.  Matricaria cantonensis Lour.  Kalimeris indica var. indica (L.) Sch.-Bip.  Callistephus indicus (L.) DC.  Chrysanthemum cuneatum Roxb.  Callistemma indicum (L.) G.Don  Aster javanicus Garcin ex Burm.f.
科属Family & Genus):菊科(Compositae)马兰属
形态特征Description):根状茎有匍枝,有时具直根。茎直立,高30-70厘米,上部有短毛,上部或从下部起 有分枝。基部叶在花期枯萎;茎部叶倒披针形或倒卵状矩圆形,长3-6稀达10厘米,宽0.8-2稀达5厘米,顶端钝或尖,基部渐狭成具翅的长柄,边缘从中部以上具有小尖头的钝或尖齿或有羽状裂片,上部叶小,全缘,基部急狭无柄,全部叶稍薄质,两面或上面有疏微毛或近无毛,边缘及下面沿脉有短粗毛,中脉在下面凸起。头状花序单生于枝端并排列成疏伞房状。总苞半球形,径6-9毫米,长4-5毫米;总苞片2-3层,覆瓦状排列;外层倒披针形,长2毫米,内层倒披针状矩圆形,长达4毫米,顶端钝或稍尖,上部草质,有疏短毛,边缘膜质,有缘毛。花托圆锥形。舌状花1层,15-20个,管部长1.5-1.7毫米;舌片浅紫色,长达10毫米,宽1.5-2毫米;管状花长3.5毫米,管部长1.5毫米,被短密毛。瘦果倒卵状矩圆形,极扁,长1.5-2毫米,宽1毫米,褐色,边缘浅色而有厚肋,上部被腺及短柔毛。冠毛长0.1-0.8毫米,弱而易脱落,不等长。花期5-9月,果期8-10月。
分布(Distribution):广泛分布于亚洲南部及东部。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 20-21 Page 584, 585
Aster indicus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 876. 1753.
马兰 ma lan| Asteraceae  | Aster
Herbs, perennial, 30-70 cm tall; rhizome stoloniferous, sometimes with vertical roots. Stems erect, puberulent above, branched from upper or lower part. Basal leaves withered by anthesis; cauline leaves long winged petiolate, obovate or oblanceolate to obovate-oblong or oblong, 3-6(-10) × 0.8-2(-5) cm, sparsely to densely puberulent or glabrous, sometimes sparsely glandular, base attenuate, margin serrate or pinnately lobed, apex obtuse or acute; upper leaves sessile, small, slightly thin, base abruptly attenuate, margin entire and hispidulous, midvein abaxially prominent. Capitula 8-120 in corymbiform synflorescences. Involucres hemispheric, 0.4-0.5 × 0.6-0.9 cm; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, unequal; outer phyllaries oblanceolate, 1.6-3.7(-4) mm; inner phyllaries oblong to obovate or spatulate, 2.5-7.5 mm, abaxially sparsely puberulent, leaflike above, margin scarious, ciliate, apex obtuse or sometimes acute. Receptacle conic. Ray florets 1-seriate, 15-20, tube 1.5-1.7 mm, lamina purplish, ca. 10 × 1.5-2 mm; disk florets ca. 3.5 mm, tube ca. 1.5 mm, densely puberulent. Achenes brown, obovoid-oblong, compressed, 1.5-2 × ca. 1 mm, marginally thickly ribbed, apically glandular and puberulent. Pappus 0.1-0.8 mm, subequal, easily deciduous. Fl. and fr. May-Nov.
Forest margins, grasslands, riverbanks, field margins, roadsides, protected shaded habitats; sea level to 3900 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [India, Japan, Korea, ?Laos, Malaysia, N Myanmar, E Russia, N Thailand, N Vietnam].
Aster indicus has been referred to the American genus Boltonia L’Héritier, but it differs from it in having achenes without long hairs at the top of the marginal ribs and ray floret achenes often thickly 3-ribbed and triangular.
This species is used medicinally to promote digestion and relieve dyspepsia, promote diuresis, dissipate blood stasis, eliminate toxins, and stop bleeding. The young leaves are usually used as a vegetable in the East.
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