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烟管蓟Cirsium pendulum

时间:2013-07-23 14:17来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):烟管蓟 学名( Scientific Name ): Cirsium pendulum Fisch. ex DC. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 垂头蓟 异名( Synonym ): Cnicus provostii Franch. Cirsium helgendorfii (Franch.




中文名(Chinese Name):烟管蓟
学名(Scientific Name):Cirsium pendulum Fisch. ex DC.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):垂头蓟
异名(Synonym):Cnicus provostii Franch.  Cirsium helgendorfii (Franch. et Sav.) Makino  Cirsium provostii (Franch.) Petr.  Cnicus helgendorfii Franch. et Sav.  Cnicus pendulus (Fisch. ex DC.) Maxim.  Cnicus hilgendorfi Franch. & Sav.  Cirsium provosti (Franch.) Petr.  Cirsium hilgendorfii (Franch. & Sav.) Makino  Cnicus provosti Franch.
科属(Family & Genus):菊科(Compositae)蓟属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,高1-3米。茎直立,粗壮,上部分枝,全部茎枝有条棱,被极稀疏的蛛丝状及多细胞长节毛,上部花序分枝上的蛛丝毛稍稠密。基生叶及下部茎叶全形长椭圆形、 偏斜椭圆形、长倒披针形或椭圆形,下部渐狭成长或短翼柄或无柄,明显的但却不规则二 回羽状分裂,一回为深裂,一回侧裂片5-7对,半长椭圆形或偏斜披针形,中部侧裂片较大,长4-16厘米,宽1.5-6厘米,向上向下的侧裂片渐小,全部一回侧裂片仅一侧深裂或半裂,而另侧不裂,边缘有针刺状缘毛或兼有少数小型刺齿,二回侧裂片斜三角形,二回顶裂片长披针形或宽线形,全部二回裂片边缘及顶端有针刺;向上的叶渐小,无柄或扩大耳状抱茎。全部叶两面同色,绿色或下面稍淡,无毛,边缘及齿顶或裂片顶端针刺长可达3毫米。头状花序下垂,在茎枝顶端排成总状圆锥花序。总苞钟状,直径3.5-5厘米,无毛。总苞片约10层,覆瓦状排列,外层与中层长三角形至钻状披针形,全长1-4厘米,宽1-2.5毫米,上部或中部以上钻状,向外反折或开展,内层及最内层披针形或线状披针形,长1.2-2,5厘米,宽1.5-2毫米,顶端短钻状渐尖。小花紫色或红色,花冠长2.2厘米,细管部细丝状,长1.6厘米,檐部短,长6毫米,5浅裂。瘦果偏斜楔状倒披针形,顶端斜截形,长4毫米,宽2毫米,稍压扁。冠毛污白色,多层,基部连合成环,整体脱落;冠毛长羽毛状,长达2.2厘米,向顶端渐细。花果期6-9月
分布(Distribution):产东北、华北、陕西及甘肃,生于海拔300-2240米的山谷、山坡草地、林缘、林下、溪边等处。朝鲜及日本也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 20-21 Page 162, 170
Cirsium pendulum Fischer ex Candolle, Prodr. 6: 650. 1838.
烟管蓟 yan guan ji | Asteraceae  | Cirsium
Cirsium hilgendorfii (Franchet & Savatier) Makino; C. provostii (Franchet) Petrak; Cnicus hilgendorfii Franchet & Savatier; C. pendulus (Fischer ex Candolle) Maximowicz; C. provostii Franchet.
Herbs 1-3 m tall, perennial. Stems erect, branched above, stout, unwinged, sparsely cobwebby and with long multicellular hairs. Leaves concolorous, surface smooth, green, glabrous. Basal and lower cauline leaves sessile or with winged petiole; leaf blade ± narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate, 40-50 × ca. 20 cm, bipinnatipartite; primary segments 5-7 pairs; ultimate lobes obliquely triangular, fringed and tipped with ca. 3 mm spines; terminal lobe of segments narrowly lanceolate to broadly linear. Middle and upper cauline leaves sessile, gradually smaller upward, semiamplexicaul. Capitula several, terminal, racemose-paniculate, nodding. Involucre campanulate, 3.5-5 cm in diam., glabrous. Phyllaries imbricate, in ca. 10 rows, lacking an abaxial resinous gland, marginal spinules, wings, and scarious appendage; outer and middle phyllaries 1-4 × 0.1-0.3 cm, basal portion triangular to lanceolate, apical portion subulate and reflexed; inner and innermost phyllaries lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 1.2-2.5 × ca. 0.2 cm, apex acuminate-subulate. Florets bisexual. Corolla purple to red, ca. 2.2 cm, tube filiform, ca. 1.6 cm. Achene ca. 4 mm. Pappus bristles dirty white, ca. 2.2 cm. Fl. and fr. Jun-Sep. 2n = 34.
Grasslands in mountain valleys and on mountain slopes, forests, forest margins, streamsides, near villages, rock crevices; 300-2300 m. SE Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shanxi, WC Yunnan [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia].
(责任编辑:徐晔春)
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