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魁蓟Cirsium leo

时间:2013-07-23 14:15来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):魁蓟 学名( Scientific Name ): Cirsium leo Nakai et Kitagawa 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 恶鸡婆 异名( Synonym ): Cirsium pinnatibracteatum Ling Cirsium chienii Chang Cirs




中文名(Chinese Name):魁蓟
学名(Scientific Name):Cirsium leo Nakai et Kitagawa
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):恶鸡婆
异名(Synonym):Cirsium pinnatibracteatum Ling  Cirsium chienii Chang  Cirsium leo var. angustilobum Ling 
科属(Family & Genus):菊科(Compositae)蓟属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,高40-100厘米。根直伸,粗壮,直径可达1.5厘米。茎直立,单生或少数茎成簇生,上部伞房状分枝,少有不分枝的,全部茎枝有条棱,被多细胞长节毛,上部及接头状花序下部的毛较稠密。基部和下部茎叶全形长椭圆形或倒披针状长椭圆形,长10-25厘米,宽4-7厘米,羽状深裂,叶柄长达5厘米或无柄;侧裂片8-12对,半圆形、半椭圆形、长椭圆形或斜三角形,中部侧裂片较大,不包括边缘针刺通常宽1.5-2.5厘米,全部侧裂片边缘三角形刺齿不等大,齿顶长针刺,针刺长(3)5-6毫米,或更长,长达1.2厘米,齿缘短针刺。向上的叶渐小,与基部和下部茎叶同形或长披针形并等样分裂,无柄或基部扩大半抱茎。全部叶两面同色,绿色,被多细胞长节毛,下面沿脉的毛稍稠密。头状花序在茎枝顶端排成伞房花序,极少单生茎顶而植株仅有1个头状花序的。总苞钟状,直径达4厘米。总苞片8层,镊合状排列,至少不呈明显的覆瓦状排列,外层与中层钻状长三角形或钻状披针形,长2-3厘米,宽2-3毫米,边缘或上部边缘有平展或向下反折的针刺,针刺长达2.5毫米,顶端针刺长达3毫米,背面有稀疏蛛丝毛,内层硬膜质,披针形至线形,长达2厘米,顶端长渐尖。小花紫色或红色,花冠长2.4 厘米,檐部长1.4厘米,不等大5浅裂,细管部长1厘米。瘦果灰黑色,偏斜椭圆形,长约5毫米,宽2毫米,顶端斜截形,压扁。冠毛污白色,多层,基部连合成环,整体脱落;冠毛刚毛长羽毛状,长达2.2厘米,向顶端渐细。花果期5-9月。
分布(Distribution):产宁夏、山西、河北、河南、陕西、甘肃及四川等地,生于海拔700-3400米的山谷、山坡草地、林缘、河滩、溪边或路边。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 20-21 Page 161, 162
Cirsium leo Nakai & Kitagawa, Rep. Exped. Manchoukuo. Sect. IV, 1: 60. 1934.
魁蓟 kui ji| Asteraceae  | Cirsium
Cirsium chienii C. C. Chang; C. pinnatibracteatum Y. Ling.
Herbs 40-100 cm, perennial. Stems simple or tufted, erect, branched above or rarely unbranched, ribbed, unwinged, with long crispate multicellular hairs. Leaves concolorous, green, surface smooth and not cobwebby but with crispate multicellular hairs dense abaxially along veins but scattered elsewhere. Basal and lower cauline leaves with petiole to 5 cm; leaf blade elliptic to oblanceolate-elliptic, 10-25 × 4-7 cm, pinnatipartite; segments 8-12 pairs, semiorbicular, ± narrowly elliptic, or obliquely triangular, with unequal triangular teeth laterally spiny and with an apical (3-)5-6(-12) mm spine. Middle and upper cauline leaves similar but sessile and gradually smaller upward. Capitula corymbose. Involucre campanulate, ca. 4 cm in diam., sparsely cobwebby. Phyllaries in ca. 8 rows, lacking wings and scarious appendage, all of similar length; outer and middle phyllaries 2-3 × 0.2-0.3 cm, pectinately fringed with spinules to 2.5 mm, basal portion triangular to lanceolate, apical portion subulate tipped with a ca. 3 mm spinule; inner phyllaries lanceolate to linear, ca. 2 × 0.1-0.2 cm, apex long acuminate. Florets bisexual. Corolla purplish red, ca. 2.4 cm, tube ca. 1 cm. Achene dark gray, ca. 5 mm. Pappus bristles dirty white, ca. 2.2 cm. Fl. and fr. May-Sep.
● Mountain valleys, slopes, forest margins, flooded lands, rock crevices, along streams, wet places; 700-3400 m. Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan.
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