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白梨Pyrus bretschneideri

时间:2013-11-06 20:57来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 白梨 学名( Scientific Name ): Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 白挂梨、罐梨 异名( Synonym ): 科属( Family Genus ): 蔷薇科(Rosaceae)梨属 形态
中文名(Chinese Name):白梨
学名(Scientific Name):Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):白挂梨、罐梨
异名(Synonym):
科属(Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)梨属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达5-8米,树冠开展;小枝粗壮,圆柱形,微屈曲,嫩时密被柔毛,不久脱落,二年生枝紫褐色,具稀疏皮孔;冬芽卵形,先端圆钝或急尖,鳞片边缘及先端有柔毛,暗紫色。叶片卵形或椭圆卵形,长5-11厘米,宽3.5-6厘米,先端渐尖稀急尖,基部宽楔形,稀近圆形,边缘有尖锐锯齿,齿尖有刺芒,微向内合拢,嫩时紫红绿色,两面均有绒毛,不久脱落,老叶无毛;叶柄长2.5-7厘米,嫩时密被绒毛,不久脱落;托叶膜质,线形至线状披针形,先端渐尖,边缘具有腺齿,长1-1.3厘米,外面有稀疏柔毛,内面较密,早落。伞形总状花序,有花7-10朵,直径4-7厘米,总花梗和花梗嫩时有绒毛,不久脱落,花梗长1.5-3厘米;苞片膜质,线形,长1-1.5厘米,先端渐尖,全缘,内面密被褐色长绒毛;花直径2-3.5厘米;萼片三角形,先端渐尖,边缘有腺齿,外面无毛,内面密被褐色绒毛;花瓣卵形,长1.2-1.4厘米,宽1-1.2厘米,先端常呈啮齿状,基部具有短爪;雄蕊20,长约等于花瓣之半;花柱5或4,与雄蕊近等长,无毛。果实卵形或近球形,长2.5-3厘米,直径2-2.5厘米,先端萼片脱落,基部具肥厚果梗,黄色,有细密斑点,4-5室;种子倒卵形,微扁,长6-7毫米,褐色。花期4月,果期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):产河北、河南、山东、山西、陕西、甘肃、青海,适宜生长在海拔100-2000米干旱寒冷的地区或山坡阳处。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 177     
Pyrus bretschneideri Rehder, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts. 50: 231. 1915.
白梨 bai li| Rosaceae  | Pyrus
Trees to 5–8 m tall. Branchlets purplish brown when old, terete, robust, densely pubescent when young, glabrous when old, sparsely lenticellate; buds dark purple, ovoid, apex obtuse; scales pubescent at margin and apex. Stipules caducous, linear or linear-lanceolate, 1–1.3 cm, membranous, pubescent, margin glandular denticulate, apex acuminate; petiole 2.5–7 cm, densely tomentose when young, soon glabrescent; leaf blade ovate or elliptic-ovate, 5–11 × 3.5–6 cm, both surfaces tomentose when young, soon glabrescent, base broadly cuneate, rarely subrounded, margin spinulose-serrate, apex acuminate, rarely acute. Raceme umbel-like, 7–10-flowered; peduncle tomentose when young, soon glabrescent; bracts caducous, linear, 1–1.5 cm, membranous, adaxially brown tomentose, margin entire, apex acuminate. Pedicel 1.5–3 cm, pubescent when young. Flowers 2–3.5 cm in diam. Hypanthium cupular, slightly pubescent when young. Sepals triangular, 3.5–5 mm, abaxially glabrous, adaxially brown tomentose, margin glandular denticulate, apex acuminate. Petals white, ovate, 1.2–1.4 × 1–1.2 cm, base shortly clawed, apex rounded. Stamens 20, ca. 1/2 as long as petals. Ovary 5- or 4-loculed, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 5 or 4, ca. as long as stamens, glabrous. Pome yellow, with fine dots, ovoid or subglobose, 2–2.5 cm. in diam., 4- or 5-loculed; sepals caducous; fruiting pedicel 1.5–3 cm, glabrous. Fl. Apr, fr. Aug–Sep. 2n = 34*, 51*, 68*.
Slopes, dry cold regions; 100--2000 m. Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Xinjiang.
This species is commonly cultivated in N China, preferring sunny, dry, loamy soils. It includes many important forms with excellent fruit.
 






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