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李Prunus salicina

时间:2013-11-06 20:56来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 李 学名( Scientific Name ): Prunus salicina Lindl. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 嘉庆子 异名( Synonym ): Prunus triflora var. spinifera Koehne Prunus staminata Hand.-Mazz
中文名(Chinese Name):
学名(Scientific Name):Prunus salicina Lindl.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):嘉庆子
异名(Synonym):Prunus triflora var. spinifera Koehne  Prunus staminata Hand.-Mazz.  Prunus ichangana C. K. Schneid.  Prunus botan André  Prunus thibetica Franch.  Prunus gymnodonta Koehne  Prunus triflora Roxb.
科属(Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)李属
形态特征(Description):落叶乔木,高9-12米;树冠广圆形,树皮灰褐色,起伏不平;老枝紫褐色或红褐色,无毛;小枝黄红色,无毛;冬芽卵圆形,红紫色,有数枚覆瓦状排列鳞片,通常无毛,稀鳞片边缘有极稀疏毛。叶片长圆倒卵形、长椭圆形,稀长圆卵形,长6-8(-12)厘米,宽3-5厘米,先端渐尖、急尖或短尾尖,基部楔形,边缘有圆钝重锯齿,常混有单锯齿,幼时齿尖带腺,上面深绿色,有光泽,侧脉6-10对,不达到叶片边缘,与主脉成45°角,两面均无毛,有时下面沿主脉有稀疏柔毛或脉腋有髯毛;托叶膜质,线形,先端渐尖,边缘有腺,早落;叶柄长1-2厘米,通常无毛,顶端有2个腺体或无,有时在叶片基部边缘有腺体。花通常3朵并生;花梗1-2厘米,通常无毛;花直径1.5-2.2厘米;萼筒钟状;萼片长圆卵形,长约5毫米,先端急尖或圆钝,边有疏齿,与萼筒近等长,萼筒和萼片外面均无毛,内面在萼筒基部被疏柔毛;花瓣白色,长圆倒卵形,先端啮蚀状,基部楔形,有明显带紫色脉纹,具短爪,着生在萼筒边缘,比萼筒长2-3倍;雄蕊多数,花丝长短不等,排成不规则2轮,比花瓣短;雌蕊1,柱头盘状,花柱比雄蕊稍长。核果球形、卵球形或近圆锥形,直径3.5-5厘米,栽培品种可达7厘米,黄色或红色,有时为绿色或紫色,梗凹陷入,顶端微尖,基部有纵沟,外被蜡粉;核卵圆形或长圆形,有皱纹。花期4月,果期7-8月。
分布(Distribution):产西南、陕西、甘肃、湖南、湖北、江苏、浙江、江西、福建、广东、广西和台湾,生于海拔400-2600米山坡灌丛中、山谷疏林中或水边、沟底、路旁等处。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 403     
Prunus salicina Lindley, Trans. Hort. Soc. London. 7: 239. 1830.
李 li| Rosaceae  | Prunus
Trees 9–12 m tall; branchlets, petioles, pedicels, outside base of hypanthium glabrous or densely pubescent. Branches purplish brown to reddish brown; branchlets yellowish red. Winter buds purplish red, usually glabrous or rarely hairy at scale margins. Stipules linear, margin glandular, apex acuminate. Petiole 1–2 cm, apex with 2 nectaries; leaf blade oblong-obovate, narrowly elliptic, or rarely oblong-ovate, 6–8(–12) × 3–5 cm, adaxially dark green and lustrous, base cuneate, margin doubly crenate and often mixed with simple gland-tipped teeth when young, apex acute to shortly caudate; secondary veins 6 or 7 on either side of midvein, not extending to leaf margin. Flowers usually 3 in a fascicle, 1.5–2.2 cm in diam. Pedicel 1–1.5 cm. Sepals oblong-ovate, ca. 5 mm, outside glabrous, margin loosely serrate, apex acute to obtuse. Petals white, oblong-obovate, base cuneate, margin erose near apex. Ovary glabrous. Stigma disc-shaped. Drupe yellow or red, sometimes green or purple, globose, ovoid, or conical, 3.5–5 cm in diam., to 7 cm in diam. in horticultural forms, glaucous; endocarp ovoid to oblong, rugose. Fl. Apr, fr. Jul–Aug.
Sparse forests, forest margins, thickets, scrub, along trails in mountains, stream sides in valleys, also cultivated; 200--2600 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
 






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