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枇杷Eriobotrya japonica

时间:2013-11-06 20:51来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 枇杷 学名( Scientific Name ): Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. 英文名( English Common Name ): loquat 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 卢桔 异名( Synonym ): Crataegus bibas Lour. Mespilus japonica Thunb
中文名(Chinese Name):枇杷
学名(Scientific Name):Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.
英文名(English Common Name):loquat
别名(Chinese Common Name):卢桔
异名(Synonym):Crataegus bibas Lour.  Mespilus japonica Thunb.
科属(Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)枇杷属
形态特征(Description):常绿小乔木,高可达10米;小枝粗壮,黄褐色,密生锈色或灰棕色绒毛。叶片革质,披针形、倒披针形、倒卵形或椭圆长圆形,长12-30厘米,宽3-9厘米,先端急尖或渐尖,基部楔形或渐狭成叶柄,上部边缘有疏锯齿,基部全缘,上面光亮,多皱,下面密生灰棕色绒毛,侧脉11-21对;叶柄短或几无柄,长6-10毫米,有灰棕色绒毛;托叶钻形,长1-1.5厘米,先端急尖,有毛。圆锥花序顶生,长10-19厘米,具多花;总花梗和花梗密生锈色绒毛;花梗长2-8毫米;苞片钻形,长2-5毫米,密生锈色绒毛;花直径12-20毫米;萼筒浅杯状,长4-5毫米,萼片三角卵形,长2-3毫米,先端急尖,萼筒及萼片外面有锈色绒毛;花瓣白色,长圆形或卵形,长5-9毫米,宽4-6毫米,基部具爪,有锈色绒毛;雄蕊20,远短于花瓣,花丝基部扩展;花柱5,离生,柱头头状,无毛,子房顶端有锈色柔毛,5室,每室有2胚珠。果实球形或长圆形,直径2-5厘米,黄色或桔黄色,外有锈色柔毛,不久脱落;种子1-5,球形或扁球形,直径1-1.5厘米,褐色,光亮,种皮纸质。花期10-12月,果期5-6月。
分布(Distribution):产我国大部分地区,各地广为栽培,四川、湖北有野生。
用途(Use):美丽观赏树木和果树。果味甘酸,供生食、蜜饯和酿酒用;叶晒干去毛,可供药用,有化痰止咳,和胃降气之效。木材红棕色,可作木梳、手杖、农具柄等用。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 138
Eriobotrya japonica (Thunberg) Lindley, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 13: 102. 1822.
枇杷 pi ba| Rosaceae  | Eriobotrya
Mespilus japonica Thunberg, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. 3: 208. 1780; Crataegus bibas Loureiro.
Trees small, to 10 m tall. Branchlets yellowish brown, densely rusty or grayish rusty tomentose. Stipule subulate, 1–1.5 cm, pubescent, apex acuminate; petiole nearly absent or short, 6–10 mm, grayish brown tomentose; leaf blade lanceolate, oblanceolate, obovate, or elliptic-oblong, 12–30 × 3–9 cm, leathery, lateral veins 11 or 12 pairs, abaxially densely gray rusty tomentose, adaxially lustrous, rugose, base cuneate, margin entire basally, remotely serrate apically, apex acute or acuminate. Panicle 10–19 cm, many flowered; peduncle densely rusty tomentose; bracts subulate, 2–5 mm, densely rusty tomentose. Pedicel 2–8 mm, rusty tomentose. Flowers fragrant, 1.2–2 cm in diam. Hypanthium shallowly cupular, abaxially rusty tomentose. Sepals triangular-ovate, 2–3 mm, abaxially densely rusty tomentose, apex obtuse. Petals white, oblong or ovate, 5–9 × 4–6 mm, apex obtuse or emarginate. Stamens 20. Ovary rusty pubescent apically, 5-loculed, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 5, free. Pome yellow or orangish yellow, globose or obovate, 1–1.5 cm in diam., rusty tomentose, soon glabrescent; fruiting pedicel 3–8 mm, initially rusty tomentose, glabrescent. Fl. Jun, fr. Jul–Aug. 2n = 34*.
Native in Chongqing (Nanchuan Xian), Hubei (Yichang); cultivated in Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [cultivated throughout SE Asia].
 






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