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山楂Crataegus pinnatifida

时间:2013-11-06 20:50来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 山楂 学名( Scientific Name ): Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge 英文名( English Common Name ): Chinese haw 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 山里红 异名( Synonym ): Crataegus pinnatifida var. songarica Dippel Cr
中文名(Chinese Name):山楂
学名(Scientific Name):Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge
英文名(English Common Name):Chinese haw
别名(Chinese Common Name):山里红
异名(Synonym):Crataegus pinnatifida var. songarica Dippel  Crataegus oxyacantha var. pinnatifida Regel  Crataegus pinnatifida f. geholensis (C. K. Schneid.) Kitag.  Mespilus pinnatifida K. Koch  Mespilus pinnatifida var. songarica Asch. et Graebn.  Crataegus pinnatifida var. geholensis C. K. Schneid.  Crataegus bretschneideri C.K.Schneid.  Crataegus pinnatifida var. typica C.K.Schneid.  Mespilus pentagyna var. pinnatifida (Bunge) Wenz.  Crataegus pinnatifi da Bunge
科属(Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)山楂属
形态特征(Description):落叶乔木,高达6米,树皮粗糙,暗灰色或灰褐色;刺长约1-2厘米,有时无刺;小枝圆柱形,当年生枝紫褐色,无毛或近于无毛,疏生皮孔,老枝灰褐色;冬芽三角卵形,先端圆钝,无毛,紫色。叶片宽卵形或三角状卵形,稀菱状卵形,长5-10厘米,宽4-7.5厘米,先端短渐尖,基部截形至宽楔形,通常两侧各有3-5羽状深裂片,裂片卵状披针形或带形,先端短渐尖,边缘有尖锐稀疏不规则重锯齿,上面暗绿色有光泽,下面沿叶脉有疏生短柔毛或在脉腋有髯毛,侧脉6-10对,有的达到裂片先端,有的达到裂片分裂处;叶柄长2-6厘米,无毛;托叶草质,镰形,边缘有锯齿。伞房花序具多花,直径4-6厘米,总花梗和花梗均被柔毛,花后脱落,减少,花梗长4-7毫米;苞片膜质,线状披针形,长约6-8毫米,先端渐尖,边缘具腺齿,早落;花直径约1.5厘米;萼筒钟状,长4-5毫米,外面密被灰白色柔毛;萼片三角卵形至披针形,先端渐尖,全缘,约与萼筒等长,内外两面均无毛,或在内面顶端有髯毛;花瓣倒卵形或近圆形,长7-8毫米,宽5-6毫米,白色;雄蕊20,短于花瓣,花药粉红色;花柱3-5,基部被柔毛,柱头头状。果实近球形或梨形,直径1-1.5厘米,深红色,有浅色斑点;小核3-5,外面稍具稜,内面两侧平滑;萼片脱落很迟,先端留一圆形深洼。花期5-6月,果期9-10月。
分布(Distribution):产东北、内蒙古、河北、河南、山东、山西、陕西、江苏,生于海拔100-1500米山坡林边或灌木丛中。朝鲜和俄罗斯西伯利亚也有。
用途(Use):山楂可栽培作绿篱和观赏树,秋季结果累累,经久不凋,颇为美观。幼苗可作嫁接山里红或苹果等砧木。果可生吃或作果酱果糕;干制后入药,有健胃、消积化滞、舒气散瘀之效。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 112     
Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge, Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans. 2: 11. 1833.
山楂 shan zha| Rosaceae  | Crataegus
Trees deciduous, to 6 m tall, with thorns 1–2 cm or sometimes unarmed. Branchlets purplish brown when young, grayish brown when old, terete, subglabrous or glabrous when young; buds purplish red, triangular-ovoid, glabrous. Stipules falcate, ca. 8 mm, herbaceous, margin serrate, apex acuminate; petiole 2–6 cm, glabrous; leaf blade dark green adaxially, broadly ovate or triangular-ovate, rarely rhomboidal-ovate, 5–10 × 4–7.5 cm, lateral veins 6–10 pairs, usually extending to apices of lobes and to sinuses between lobes, abaxially sparsely pubescent along veins, adaxially lustrous, base truncate or broadly cuneate, with 3–5 pairs of lobes, margin sharply irregularly doubly serrate, apex shortly acuminate. Corymb 4–6 cm in diam., many flowered; peduncle initially pubescent, glabrate, bracts caducous, linear-lanceolate, membranous, apex acuminate. Pedicel 4–7 mm, initially pubescent, glabrescent. Flowers ca. 1.5 cm in diam. Hypanthium campanulate, abaxially grayish white pubescent. Sepals triangular-ovate to lanceolate, 4–5 mm, both surfaces glabrous, apex shortly acuminate. Petals white, obovate or suborbicular, 7–8 × 5–6 mm. Stamens 20. Ovary 5-loculed, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 3–5, pubescent basally. Pome dark red, subglobose or pyriform, 1–2.5 cm in diam., glabrous; sepals persistent; pyrenes 3–5. Fl. May–Jun, fr. Aug–Sep. 2n = 34*, 102*.
Among shrubs, slopes, also cultivated; 100--2000 m. Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Xinjiang, Zhejiang [Korea].
 






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