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毛樱桃 Cerasus tomentosa

时间:2013-11-06 20:47来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 毛樱桃 学名( Scientific Name ): Cerasus tomentosa (Thunb.) Yas. Endo 英文名( English Common Name ): Nanking cherry 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 山樱桃、梅桃 异名( Synonym ): Prunus batalinii (C. K. Sc
中文名(Chinese Name):毛樱桃
学名(Scientific Name):Cerasus tomentosa (Thunb.) Yas. Endo
英文名(English Common Name):Nanking cherry
别名(Chinese Common Name):山樱桃、梅桃
异名(Synonym):Prunus batalinii (C. K. Schneid.) Koehne  Prunus cinerascens Franch.  Prunus tomentosa var. tsuluensis Koehne  Prunus trichocarpa Bunge  Prunus tomentosa var. heteromera Koehne  Prunus tomentosa var. kashkarovii Koehne  Prunus tomentosa var. souliei Koehne  Prunus tomentosa var. trichocarpa (Bunge) Koehne  Prunus tomentosa var. endotricha Koehne  Prunus tomentosa Thunb.  Prunus tomentosa var. batalinii C. K. Schneid.  Prunus tomentosa var. breviflora Koehne  Cerasus tomentosa var. pendula B. Y. Feng et S. M. Xie
科属Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)樱属
形态特征Description):灌木,通常高0.3-1米,稀呈小乔木状,高可达2-3米。小枝紫褐色或灰褐色,嫩枝密被绒毛到无毛。冬芽卵形,疏被短柔毛或无毛。叶片卵状椭圆形或倒卵状椭圆形,长2-7厘米,宽1-3.5厘米,先端急尖或渐尖,基部楔形,边有急尖或粗锐锯齿,上面暗绿色或深绿色,被疏柔毛,下面灰绿色,密被灰色绒毛或以后变为稀疏,侧脉4-7对;叶柄长2-8毫米,被绒毛或脱落稀疏;托叶线形,长3-6毫米,被长柔毛。花单生或2朵簇生,花叶同开,近先叶开放或先叶开放;花梗长达2.5毫米或近无梗;萼筒管状或杯状,长4-5毫米,外被短柔毛或无毛,萼片三角卵形,先端圆钝或急尖,长2-3毫米,内外两面内被短柔毛或无毛;花瓣白色或粉红色,倒卵形,先端圆钝;雄蕊20-25枚,短于花瓣;花柱伸出与雄蕊近等长或稍长;子房全部被毛或仅顶端或基部被毛。核果近球形,红色,直径0.5-1.2厘米;核表面除棱脊两侧有纵沟外,无棱纹。花期4-5月,果期6-9月。2n=16。
分布(Distribution):产东北、西南、内蒙古、河北、山西、陕西、甘肃、宁夏、青海、山东,生于海拔100-3200米山坡林中、林缘、灌丛中或草地。
用途(Use):本种果实微酸甜,可食及酿酒;种仁含油率达43%左右,可制肥皂及润滑油用。种仁又入药,商品名大李仁,有润肠利水之效。我国河北、新疆、江苏等地城市庭园常见栽培,供观赏用。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 406     
Cerasus tomentosa (Thunberg) Wallich ex T. T. Yü & C. L. Li in T. T. Yü, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 38(2): 86. 1986.
毛樱桃 mao ying tao| Rosaceae  | Cerasus
Prunus tomentosa Thunberg in Murray, Syst. Veg. ed. 14, 464. 1784; P. batalinii (C. K. Schneider) Koehne; P. cinerascens Franchet; P. tomentosa var. batalinii C. K. Schneider; P. tomentosa var. breviflora Koehne; P. tomentosa var. endotricha Koehne; P. tomentosa var. heteromera Koehne; P. tomentosa var. kashkarovii Koehne; P. tomentosa var. souliei Koehne; P. tomentosa var. trichocarpa (Bunge) Koehne; P. tomentosa var. tsuluensis Koehne; P. trichocarpa Bunge.
Shrubs usually 0.3–1 m tall, rarely arborescent and 2–3 m tall. Branchlets purplish to grayish brown; young branchlets densely tomentose or glabrous. Winter buds ovoid, sparsely pubescent or glabrous. Stipules linear, 3–6 mm, villous. Petiole 2–8 mm, tomentose, glabrescent; leaf blade ovate-elliptic to obovate-elliptic, 2–7 × 1–3.5 cm, abaxially grayish green and densely gray tomentose but glabrescent, adaxially dark green and pilose, base cuneate, margin coarsely and acutely serrate, apex acute to acuminate; secondary veins 4–7 on either side of midvein. Flowers solitary or 2 in a fascicle, opening before or at same time as leaves. Pedicel almost absent to 2.5 mm. Hypanthium tubular to cup-shaped, 4–5 mm, outside pubescent or glabrous. Sepals triangular-ovate, 2–3 mm, both surfaces pubescent or glabrous, apex obtuse to acute. Petals pink or white, obovate, apex rounded. Stamens 20–25, shorter than petals. Ovary hairy or only hairy at base or apex. Style exserted, slightly longer than stamens. Drupe red, subglobose, 5–12 mm in diam.; endocarp sides sparsely ribbed. Fl. Apr–May, fr. Jun–Sep.
Forests on mountain slopes, forest margins, thickets, meadows, also cultivated; 100--3700 m. Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan.
This species is widely cultivated in temperate E Asia for its flowers and edible fruit.
After publication of the FOC volume, it came to our attention that Wallich's 1829 publication of the name (Numer. List no. 715. 1829) is invalid.
 




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