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香蕉 Musa acuminata (AAA)

时间:2013-10-18 12:58来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):香蕉 学名( Scientific Name ): Musa acuminata (AAA) 英文名( English Common Name ): edible banana 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 芎蕉 异名( Synonym ): Musa nana Lour. 科属( Family Genus ): 芭蕉科(Musac
中文名(Chinese Name):香蕉
学名(Scientific Name):Musa acuminata (AAA)
英文名(English Common Name):edible banana
别名(Chinese Common Name):芎蕉
异名(Synonym):Musa nana Lour.
科属(Family & Genus):芭蕉科(Musaceae)芭蕉属
形态特征(Description):植株丛生,具匐匍茎,矮型的高3.5米以下,一般高不及2米,高型的高4-5米,假茎均浓绿而带黑斑,被白粉,尤以上部为多。叶片长圆形,长(1.5) 2-2.2 (2.5)米,宽60-70(85)厘米,先端钝圆,基部近圆形,两侧对称,叶面深绿色,无白粉,叶背浅绿色,被白粉;叶柄短粗,通常长在30 厘米以下,叶翼显著,张开,边缘褐红色或鲜红色。穗状花序下垂,花序轴密被褐色绒毛,苞片外面紫红色,被白粉,内面深红色,但基部略淡,具光泽,雄花苞片不脱落,每苞片内有花2列。花乳白色或略带浅紫色,离生花被片近圆形,全缘,先端有锥状急尖,合生花被片的中间二侧生小裂片长,长约为中央裂片的1/2。最大的果丛有果360个之多,重可达32公斤,一般的果丛有果8-10段,约有果150-200个。果身弯曲,略为浅弓形,幼果向上,直立,成熟后逐渐趋于平伸,长 (10) 12-30厘米,直径3.4-3.8厘米,果棱明显,有4-5棱,先端渐狭,非显著缩小,果柄短,果皮青绿色,在高温下催熟,果皮呈绿色带黄,在低温下催熟,果皮则由青变为黄色,并且生麻黑点(即“梅花点”),果肉松软,黄白色,味甜,无种子,香味特浓。剑头芽(即慈姑芽或竹笋芽)假茎高约50厘米,基部粗壮,肉红色,上部细小,呈带灰绿的紫红色,黑斑大而显著,叶片狭长上举,叶背被有厚层的白粉。
分布(Distribution):产我国南部。台湾、福建、广东、广西、海南以及云南均有栽培,其中尤以广东栽培最盛。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 24 Page 316
Musa acuminata Colla, Mem. Gen. Musa. 25:66. 1820.
小果野蕉 xiao guo ye jiao| Musaceae  | Musa
Pseudostems green with black blotches, ca. 4.8 m. Leaf sheath and petiole pruinose; petiole ca. 80 cm, margin erect or spreading and basally with scarious wings; leaf blade adaxially green and pruinose, abaxially yellow-green and pruinose or not, oblong, 1.9--2.3 m × 50--70 cm, base cordate, asymmetric, midvein adaxially green, abaxially white-yellow. Inflorescence subhorizontal or vertically reflexed; peduncle usually downy or hairy. Bracts bright red to dark violet, sometimes yellow at extreme apex, ovate, apex usually acute. Male flowers ca. 20 per bract, in 2 rows. Compound tepal white or cream, lemon yellow at apex, 3.5--4 cm, apex of outer lobes with a hooklike, hairy appendage; free tepal not more than 1/2 as long as compound tepal, apex emarginate, shortly apiculate. Infructescence ca. 1.2 m; peduncle to 70 × ca. 4 cm, white setose. Berries incurved, green to yellow-green, 5-angled when young, cylindric at maturity, ca. 9 cm, white setose, base curved and attenuate into a stalk, apex contracted into a rostrum 6--10 mm. Seeds numerous in wild plants but absent in cultivated clones, brown, depressed, 5--6 mm in diam., irregularly angled. 2 n = 22, 33.
Shaded and moist ravines, marshlands, semimarshlands, slopes, also cultivated; near sea level to 1200 m. Native in W Guangxi and Yunnan; cultivated in Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, and Yunnan [India, Indonesia (Java), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam].
Wild plants are diploid (2 n = 22) and bear fruits containing numerous seeds making them inedible. Cultivated plants are triploid (2 n = 33) and bear seedless, edible fruits; such plants have been called M. acuminata ‘Dwarf Cavendish’ ( M. cavendishii Lambert ex Paxton; M. chinensis Sweet; M. nana Loureiro).








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