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核桃Juglans regia

时间:2013-09-24 13:22来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):核桃 学名( Scientific Name ): Juglans regia L. 英文名( English Common Name ): English walnut 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 胡桃 异名( Synonym ): Juglans duclouxiana Dode Juglans fallax Dode Juglans kama
中文名(Chinese Name):核桃
学名(Scientific Name):Juglans regia L.
英文名(English Common Name):English walnut
别名(Chinese Common Name):胡桃
异名(Synonym):Juglans duclouxiana Dode  Juglans fallax Dode  Juglans kamaonia (C. DC.) Dode  Juglans orientis Dode  Juglans regia var. sinensis C. DC.  Juglans sinensis (C. DC.) Dode  Juglans regia subsp. fallax Popov  Juglans regia var. kamaonia C. DC.  Regia maxima Loudon ex C.DC.
科属(Family & Genus):胡桃科(Juglandaceae)胡桃属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达20 25米;树干较别的种类矮,树冠广阔;树皮幼时灰绿色,老时则灰白色而纵向浅裂;小枝无毛,具光泽,被盾状着生的腺体,灰绿色,后来带褐色。奇数羽状复叶长25-30厘米,叶柄及叶轴幼时被有极短腺毛及腺体;小叶通常5-9枚,稀3枚,椭圆状卵形至长椭圆形,长约6-15厘米,宽约3-6厘米,顶端钝圆或急尖、短渐尖,基部歪斜、近于圆形,边缘全缘或在幼树上者具稀疏细锯齿,上面深绿色,无毛,下面淡绿色,侧脉11-15对,腋内具簇短柔毛,侧生小叶具极短的小叶柄或近无柄,生于下端者较小,顶生小叶常具长约3-6厘米的小叶柄。雄性葇荑花序下垂,长约5-10厘米、稀达15厘米。雄花的苞片、小苞片及花被片均被腺毛;雄蕊6-30枚,花药黄色,无毛。雌性穗状花序通常具1-3(-4)雌花。雌花的总苞被极短腺毛,柱头浅绿色。果序短,杞俯垂,具1-3果实;果实近于球状,直径4-6厘米,无毛;果核稍具皱曲,有2条纵棱,顶端具短尖头;隔膜较薄,内里无空隙;内果皮壁内具不规则的空隙或无空隙而仅具皱曲。花期5月,果期10月。
分布(Distribution):产于华北、西北、西南、华中、华南和华东,生于海拔400-1800米之山坡及丘陵地带,中亚、西亚、南亚和欧洲也有。
用途(Use):种仁含油量高,可生食,亦可榨油食用;木材坚实,是很好的硬木材料。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 4 Page 282     
Juglans regia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 997. 1753.
胡桃 hu tao| Juglandaceae  | Juglans
Juglans duclouxiana Dode; J. fallax Dode; J. kamaonia (C. de Candolle) Dode; J. orientis Dode; J. regia var. sinensis C. de Candolle; J. sinensis (C. de Candolle) Dode.
Trees to 25 m tall. Leaves 25-30 cm; petiole 5-7 cm; petiole and rachis glabrescent, without glandular hairs; leaflets (3 or)5-9, entire on mature trees, sometimes obscurely serrulate on young plants; lateral leaflets subsessile or petiolule 1-2 mm, blade elliptic-ovate to long elliptic, 6-15 × 3-6 cm, abaxially glabrous except for tufts of hairs in vein axils, without glandular hairs, base oblique, subrounded, apex obtuse or acute to shortly acuminate; terminal petiolule 2.5-6 cm. Male spike 5-10(-15) cm. Stamens 6-30(-40). Fruiting spike usually with 1-3(-38) nuts. Nuts subglobose, 4-6 cm; husk glabrous, irregularly dehiscent; shell thick except in commercial varieties, wrinkled. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Oct. 2n = 32.
Mountain slopes; 500-1800(-4000) m. Widely distributed in C, E, NW, and SW China [SW Asia to Himalayas, SE Europe]
Commonly cultivated in China from 23-42° N for its edible, oily nuts and hard, fine grained wood. Juglans regia has a very long history of cultivation in China and elsewhere; as a result, there are many cultivars, including five Chinese taxa that L.-A. Dode (Bull. Soc. Dendrol. France 2: 67-98. 1906), recognized on the basis of differences in shell thickness, size, etc.







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