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木薯Manihot esculenta

时间:2018-06-26 11:32来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):木薯 学名( Scientific Name ): Manihot esculenta Crantz 英文名( English Common Name ): cassava 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 树葛 异名( Synonym ): Manihot utilissima Pohl Manihot flabellifolia Pohl Manih
中文名(Chinese Name):木薯
学名(Scientific Name):Manihot esculenta Crantz
英文名(English Common Name):cassava
别名(Chinese Common Name):树葛
异名(Synonym):Manihot utilissima Pohl  Manihot flabellifolia Pohl  Manihot flexuosa Pax & K.Hoffm.  Manihot guyanensis Klotzsch ex Pax  Manihot edule A.Rich.  Manihot aipi Pohl  Manihot aypi Spruce  Manihot loureiroi Pohl  Manihot sprucei Pax  Manihot digitiformis Pohl  Manihot diffusa Pohl  Manihot melanobasis Müll.Arg.  Manihot cassava Cook & Collins  Manihot cannabina Sweet  Jatropha aipi (Pohl) A.Moller  Jatropha diffusa (Pohl) Steud.  Jatropha digitiformis (Pohl) Steud.  Jatropha dulcis J.F.Gmel.  Jatropha loureiroi (Pohl) Steud.  Jatropha paniculata Ruiz & Pav. ex Pax  Jatropha silvestris Vell.  Jatropha stipulata Vell.  Janipha aipi (Pohl) J.Presl  Janipha manihot (L.) Kunth  Mandioca aipi (Pohl) Link  Mandioca dulcis (J.F.Gmel.) D.Parodi  Mandioca utilissima (Pohl) Link  Manihot esculenta subsp. flabellifolia (Pohl) Cif.  Manihot esculenta var. flavicaulis Cif.  Manihot esculenta var. fuscescens Cif.  Manihot esculenta subsp. grandifolia Cif.  Manihot esculenta var. hispaniolensis Cif., nom. illeg.  Manihot esculenta var. jamaicensis Cif., nom. illeg.  Manihot esculenta var. luteola Cif., nom. illeg.  Manihot esculenta var. mutabilis Cif., nom. illeg.  Manihot esculenta var. nodosa Cif.  Manihot esculenta var. pohlii Cif., nom. illeg.  Manihot esculenta var. ramosissima Cif., nom. illeg.  Manihot esculenta var. rufescens Cif., nom. illeg.  Manihot esculenta var. sprucei Lanj.  Manihot esculenta var. zimmermannii Cif., nom. illeg.  Manihot palmata var. aipi (Pohl) Müll.Arg.  Manihot palmata var. diffusa (Pohl) Müll.Arg.  Manihot palmata var. digitiformis (Pohl) Müll.Arg.  Manihot palmata var. flabellifolia (Pohl) Müll.Arg.  Manihot aipi var. lanceolata Pohl  Manihot aipi var. latifolia Pohl  Manihot aipi var. lutescens Pohl  Manihot utilissima var. castellana Pohl  Manihot utilissima var. sutinga Pohl  Manihot esculenta var. domingensis Cif., nom. illeg.  Manihot esculenta var. fertilis Cif., nom. illeg.  Manihot esculenta var. debilis Cif.  Manihot esculenta subsp. diffusa Cif., nom. illeg.  Manihot esculenta var. digitifolia Cif.  Manihot esculenta subsp. alboerecta Cif., nom. illeg.  Manihot esculenta var. argentea Cif.  Manihot esculenta var. coalescens Cif.  Manihot esculenta var. communis Cif., nom. illeg.  Manihot dulcis var. flabellifolia (Pohl) Pax  Manihot dulcis var. aipi (Pohl) Pax  Manihot dulcis var. diffusa (Pohl) Pax  Manihot edulis A. Rich.  Manihot esculenta var. grandifolia Cif.
科属Family & Genus):大戟科(Euphorbiaceae)木薯属
形态特征Description):直立灌木,高1.5-3米;块根圆往状。叶纸质,轮廓近圆形,长10-20厘米,掌状深裂几达基部,裂片3-7片,倒披针形至狭椭圆形,长8-18厘米,宽1.5-4厘米,顶端渐尖,全缘,侧脉(5-) 7-15条;叶柄长8-22厘米,稍盾状着生,具不明显细棱;托叶三角状披针形,长5-7毫米,全缘或具1-2条刚毛状细裂。圆锥花序顶生或腋生,长5-8厘米,苞片条状披针形;花萼带紫红色且有白粉霜;雄花:花萼长约7毫米,裂片长卵形,近等大,长3-4毫米,宽2.5毫米,内面被毛;雄蕊长6-7毫米,花药顶部被白色短毛;雌花:花萼长约10毫米,裂片长圆状披针形,长约8毫米,宽约3毫米;子房卵形,具6条纵梭,柱头外弯,摺扇状。蒴果椭圆状,长1.5-1.8厘米,直径1-1.5厘米,表面粗糙,具6条狭而波状纵翅;种子长约1厘米,多少具三棱,种皮硬壳质,具斑纹,光滑。花期9-11月。
分布(Distribution):原产巴西,现全世界热带地区广泛栽培。

用途(Use):木薯的块根富含淀粉,是工业淀粉原料之一。木薯的栽培较粗放,且产量高,是我国南部山区常见的杂粮作物,因块根含氰酸毒素,需经漂浸处理后方可食用,一些低毒品种,如面包木薯,剥去皮层后,便可除毒。木薯在我国栽培已有百余年,通常以枝、叶淡绿色或紫红色两大品系,前者毒性较低。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 11 Page 275, 276
Manihot esculenta Crantz, Inst. Rei Herb. 1: 167. 1766.
木薯 mu shu  | Euphorbiaceae  | Manihot
Jatropha manihot Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1007. 1753; Janipha aipi (Pohl) J. Presl; J. manihot (Linnaeus) Kunth; Jatropha stipulata Vellozo; Mandioca aipi (Pohl) Link; M. dulcis Parodi; M. utilissima (Pohl) Link; Manihot aipi Pohl; M. edulis A. Richard; M. utilissima Pohl.
Erect shrubs 1.5-5 m tall; root tubers terete. Stipules triangular-lanceolate, 5-7 mm, entire or with 1 or 2 bristly segments; petiole 6-35 cm, slightly peltate, inserted less than 5 mm from margin; leaf blade palmately 3-9-lobed, 5-20 cm, lobes oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic, 8-18 × 1.5-4 cm, apex acu-minate, entire; lateral veins 5-15. Racemes terminal or axillary, 5-8 cm; bracts oblong-lanceolate; pedicels 4-6 mm. Male flowers: calyx ca. 7 mm, purple-red, divided to or over middle, lobes long ovate, 3-4 × ca. 2.5 mm, hairy inside; stamens 6-7 mm; anthers white pubescent at apex. Female flowers: calyx ca. 10 mm, lobes oblong-lanceolate, ca. 8 × 3 mm; ovary ovoid, longitudinally 6-angled; stigmas recurved, plaited. Capsule ellipsoidal, 1.5-1.8 × 1-1.5 cm, longitudinally 6-winged, scabrous. Seeds slightly triangular, ca. 1 cm; testa crustaceous, smooth, with spot-stripes. Fl. Sep-Nov.
Widely cultivated. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [native to Brazil; cultivated throughout the tropics].
The root tubers yield tapioca and are a staple crop in many areas of the tropics. They contain hydrocyanic acid and may cause death if eaten raw; they become edible after thorough soaking in water and cooking.




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