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紫背菜Gynura bicolor

时间:2013-07-23 12:29来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):紫背菜 学名( Scientific Name ): Gynura bicolor (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 红凤菜、红背菜 异名( Synonym ): Cacalia bilolor Roxb. ex Willd. Senecio






中文名(Chinese Name):紫背菜
学名(Scientific Name):Gynura bicolor (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):红凤菜、红背菜
异名(Synonym):Cacalia bilolor Roxb. ex Willd.  Senecio moluccanus Roxb.
科属(Family & Genus):菊科(Compositae)菊三七属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,高50-100厘米,全株无毛。茎直立,柔软,基部稍木质,上部有伞房状分枝,干时有条棱。叶具柄或近无柄。叶片倒卵形或倒披针形,稀长圆状披针形,长5-10厘米,宽2.5-4厘米,顶端尖或渐尖,基部楔状渐狭成具翅的叶柄,或近无柄而多少扩大,但不形成叶耳。边缘有不规则的波状齿或小尖齿,稀近基部羽状浅裂,侧脉7-9对,弧状上弯,上面绿色,下面干时变紫色,两面无毛;上部和分枝上的叶小,披针形至线状披针形,具短柄或近无柄。头状花序多数直径10毫米,在茎、枝端排列成疏伞房状;花序梗细,长3-4厘米,有1-2(3)丝状苞片。总苞狭钟状,长11-15毫米,宽8-10毫米,基部有7-9个线形小苞片;总苞片1层,约13个,线状披针形或线形,长11-15毫米,宽0.9-1.5(2)毫米,顶端尖或渐尖,边缘干膜质,背面具3条明显的肋,无毛。小花橙黄色至红色,花冠明显伸出总苞,长13-15毫米,管部细,长10-12毫米;裂片卵状三角形;花药基部圆形,或稍尖;花柱分枝钻形,被乳头状毛。瘦果圆柱形,淡褐色,长约4毫米,具10-15肋,无毛;冠毛丰富,白色,绢毛状,易脱落。花果期5-10月。
分布(Distribution):产云南、贵州、四川、广西、广东及台湾等地,生于海拔600-1500米的林下、岩石上或河边湿地。东南亚及日本也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 20-21 Page 538, 540
Gynura bicolor (Roxburgh ex Willdenow) Candolle, Prodr. 6: 299. 1838.
红凤菜 hong feng cai| Asteraceae  | Gynura
Cacalia bicolor Roxburgh ex Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 3: 1731. 1803.
Herbs, perennial. Stems erect, 50-100 cm tall, glabrous, flaccid, rather woody at base, corymbosely branched in upper part, striate when dry. Leaves petiolate or subsessile; blade abaxially becoming purplish when dry, adaxially green, obovate or oblanceolate, rarely oblong-lanceolate, both surfaces glabrous, lateral veins 7-9-paired, curved, base gradually attenuate into winged petioles or subsessile, ± expanded, but not auriculate, margin irregularly repand-dentate or mucronulate, rarely pinnatifid near base. Upper leaves shortly petiolate or subsessile, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, small. Capitula numerous, ca. 10 mm in diam., in terminal lax corymbs; peduncles 3-4 cm, slender, with 1 or 2(or 3) filiform bracts. Involucres campanulate, 11-15 × 8-10 mm; bracts of calyculus 7-9, linear; phyllaries 13, linear-lanceolate, 11-15 × 0.9-1.5(-2) mm, glabrous, conspicuously 3-ribbed, margin scarious, apically acute or acuminate. Florets orange to reddish; corolla distinctly exceeding involucres, 13-15 mm; tube 10-12 mm, slender; lobes ovate-triangular. Anthers rounded at base, or slightly acute. Style branch tips subulate, papillose. Achenes brownish, cylindric, ca. 4 mm, glabrous, 10-15-ribbed. Pappus white, silky, easily deciduous. Fl. May-Oct.
Forests on slopes, rocky or wet places by rivers; 600-1500 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Myanmar, Thailand; widely cultivated in gardens].
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