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刺果番荔枝Annona muricata

时间:2018-06-29 13:40来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):刺果番荔枝 学名( Scientific Name ): Annona muricata L. 英文名( English Common Name ): soursop 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 红毛榴莲 异名( Synonym ): Annona portoricensis M. Gmez;Annona cearaensis Barb
中文名(Chinese Name):刺果番荔枝
学名(Scientific Name):Annona muricata L.
英文名(English Common Name):soursop
别名(Chinese Common Name):红毛榴莲
异名(Synonym):Annona portoricensis M. Gómez;Annona cearaensis Barb. Rodr.;Annona bonplandiana Kunth;Guanabanus muricatus (L.) M. Gómez;Annona muricata var. borinquensis Morales ex Urb.;Annona muricata f. mirabilis R. E. Fr. 
科属(Family & Genus):番荔枝科(Annonaceae)番荔枝属
形态特征(Description):常绿乔木,高达8米;树皮粗糙。叶纸质,倒卵状长圆形至椭圆形,长5-18厘米,宽2-7厘米,顶端急尖或钝,基部宽楔形或圆形,叶面翠绿色而有光泽,叶背浅绿色,两面无毛;侧脉每边8-13条,两面略为凸起,在叶缘前网结。花蕾卵圆形;花淡黄色,长3.8厘米,直径与长相等或稍宽;萼片卵状椭圆形,长约5毫米,宿存;外轮花瓣厚,阔三角形,长2.5-5厘米,顶端急尖至钝,内面基部有红色小凸点,无柄,镊合状排列,内轮花瓣稍薄,卵状椭圆形,长2-3.5厘米,顶端钝,内面下半部覆盖雌雄蕊处密生小凸点,有短柄,覆瓦状排列;雄蕊长4毫米,花丝肉质,药隔膨大;心皮长5毫米,被白色绢质柔毛。果卵圆状,长10-35厘米,直径7-15厘米,深绿色,幼时有下弯的刺,刺随后逐渐脱落而残存有小突体,果肉微酸多汁,白色;种子多颗,肾形,长1.7厘米,宽约1厘米,棕黄色。花期4-7月,果期7-翌年3月。
分布(Distribution):台湾、广东、广西和云南等省区栽培。原产热带美洲;现亚洲热带地区也有栽培。
用途(Use):果实硕大而有酸甜味,可食用,含蛋白质0.70%,脂肪0.40%,糖类17.10%。木材可作造船材。紫胶虫寄主树。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 19 Page 711, 712
Annona muricata Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 536. 1753.
刺果番荔枝 ci guo fan li zhi| Annonaceae  | Annona
Trees to 10 m tall, evergreen. Bark rugose. Petiole short; leaf blade obovate-oblong to ovate-elliptic, 5-18 × 2-7 cm, papery, abaxially greenish and glabrous, adaxially green and shiny, secondary veins 6-13 on each side of midvein and slightly prominent on both surfaces, base broadly cuneate to rounded, apex acute to obtuse. Inflorescences axillary, 1- or 2-flowered. Flowers ca. 3.8 cm in diam. Pedicel 0.5-2.5 cm, pubescent. Sepals ovate-elliptic to ovate-triangular, 3-5 mm. Petals green, later yellowish, inside basally without a red spot; outer petals thick, broadly triangular, 2.5-5 × 2-4 cm, inside finely pubescent, apex acute to obtuse; inner petals ovate-elliptic, 2-4 × 1.5-3.5 cm, slightly thin, imbricate, pubescent, base clawed, apex obtuse. Stamens 4-5 mm; filaments fleshy; connectives apically dilated. Carpels ca. 5 mm, pubescent. Syncarp green, ovoid and often oblique or curved, 10-35 × 7-15 cm, covered with soft prickles, base impressed, apex rounded; pulp white. Seeds brownish yellow, reniform, ca. 2 × 1 cm. Fl. Apr-Jul, fr. Jul-Dec. 2n = 14, 16.
Widely cultivated; 100-400 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [native to tropical America].
The fruit, soursop, is the largest among Annona species. It is eaten raw, used in sherbets, and used in drinks. The pulp is also consumed with wine or cognac.







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