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山蜡梅Chimonanthus nitens

时间:2013-11-25 17:03来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 山蜡梅 学名( Scientific Name ): Chimonanthus nitens Oliv. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 臭蜡梅、野蜡梅、雪里花、亮叶蜡梅 异名( Synonym ): Calycanthus nitens (Oliv.) Rehde
中文名(Chinese Name):山蜡梅
学名(Scientific Name): Chimonanthus nitens Oliv.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):臭蜡梅、野蜡梅、雪里花、亮叶蜡梅
异名(Synonym):Calycanthus nitens (Oliv.) Rehder  Meratia nitens (Oliv.) Rehder et E. H. Wilson  Chimonanthus campanulatus var. guizhouensis R. H. Chang  Chimonanthus grammatus M. C. Liu  Chimonanthus zhejiangensis M. C. Liu  Chimonanthus nitens var. ovatus T.B. Chao & Z.Q. Li 
科属(Family & Genus):蜡梅科Calycanthaceae蜡梅属Chimonanthus
形态特征(Description):常绿灌木,高1-3米;幼枝四方形,老枝近圆柱形,被微毛,后渐无毛。叶纸质至近革质,椭圆形至卵状披针形,少数为长圆状披针形,长2-13厘米,宽1.5-5.5厘米,顶端渐尖,基部钝至急尖,叶面略粗糙,有光泽,基部有不明显的腺毛,叶背无毛,或有时在叶缘、叶脉和叶柄上被短柔毛;叶脉在叶面扁平,在叶背凸起,网脉不明显。花小,直径7-10毫米,黄色或黄白色;花被片圆形、卵形、倒卵形、卵状披针形或长圆形,长3-15毫米,宽2.5-10毫米,外面被短柔毛,内面无毛;雄蕊长2毫米,花丝短,被短柔毛,花药卵形,向内弯,比花丝长,退化雄蕊长1.5毫米;心皮长2毫米,基部及花柱基部被疏硬毛。果托坛状,长2-5厘米,直径1-2.5厘米,口部收缩,成熟时灰褐色,被短绒毛,内藏聚合瘦果。花期10月-翌年1月,果期4-7月。
分布(Distribution):产于安徽、浙江、江苏、江西、福建、湖北、湖南、广西、云南、贵州和陕西等省区。生于山地疏林中或石灰岩山地。
用途(Use):花黄色美丽,叶常绿,是良好的园林绿化植物。根可药用,治跌打损伤、风湿、劳伤咳嗽、寒性胃痛、感冒头痛、疔疮毒疮等。种子含油脂。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 7 Page 92, 93, 94
Chimonanthus nitens Oliver, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 16: t. 1600. 1887.
山蜡梅 shan la mei | Calycanthaceae  | Chimonanthus
Calycanthus nitens (Oliver) Rehder; Chimonanthus nitens var. ovatus T. B. Chao & Z. Q. Li; Meratia nitens (Oliver) Rehder & E. H. Wilson.
Shrubs or trees, 1-6 m tall, evergreen. Branchlets quadrangular when young but becoming subterete, puberulous but glabrescent. Petiole 3-10 mm, glabrous or sometimes with short hirsute pubescence; leaf blade elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate, broadly elliptic, or ovate-lanceolate, 2-13 × 1.5-5.5 cm, papery to subleathery, both surfaces green to occasionally very pale green and subscabrous, abaxially glabrous or sometimes with a minute short hirsute pubescence, adaxially shiny and with inconspicuous glandular trichomes, secondary veins abaxially convex and adaxially flattened, reticulate veins obscure, base obtuse to cuneate, apex acuminate, long acuminate, or shortly caudate. Flowers solitary, 0.7-1 cm in diam. Tepals 20-24, yellow to yellowish white, rounded, ovate, obovate, ovate-lanceolate, or oblong, 3-15 × 2.5-10 mm, outside pubescent, inside glabrous. Stamens ca. 2 mm; filaments short, pubescent; anthers ovate, incumbent, longer than filaments; staminodes ca. 1.5 cm, base and base of style with scattered hirsute pubescence. Pseudocarp grayish brown at maturity, urceolate to subcampanulate, 2-5 × 1-2.5 cm, velutinous, apex constricted. Achenes ellipsoid, 1-1.3 cm. Fl. Oct-Jan, fr. Apr-Aug. 2n = 22*.
● Sparse woodlands in mountains, montane limestone areas; 200-2500 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
 
Chimonanthus nitens is a good horticultural plant because of its beautiful yellow flowers and evergreen leaves. Its roots are used medicinally, and the dried young leaves are commonly used as tea in Jiangxi and Zhejiang.




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