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蔓九节 Psychotria serpens

时间:2013-11-11 15:06来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 蔓九节 学名( Scientific Name ): Psychotria serpens Linn. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 拎壁龙、风不动藤 异名( Synonym ): Grumilea serpens (L.) K.Schum. Uragoga serpens (L
中文名(Chinese Name):蔓九节  
学名(Scientific Name):Psychotria serpens Linn.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):拎壁龙、风不动藤
异名(Synonym):Grumilea serpens (L.) K.Schum.  Uragoga serpens (L.) Kuntze  Psychotria serpens var. latifolia Pit.
科属Family & Genus):茜草科Rubiaceae九节属Psychotria
形态特征Description):多分枝、攀缘或匍匐藤本,常以气根攀附于树干或岩石上,长可达6米或更长;嫩枝稍扁,无毛或有粃糠状短柔毛,有细直纹,老枝圆柱形,近木质,攀附枝有一列短而密的气根。叶对生,纸质或革质,叶形变化很大,年幼植株的叶多呈卵形或倒卵形,年老植株的叶多呈椭圆形、披针形、倒披针形或倒卵状长圆形,长0.7-9厘米,宽0.5-3.8厘米,顶端短尖、钝或锐渐尖,基部楔形或稍圆,边全缘而有时稍反卷,干时苍绿色或暗红褐色,下面色较淡,侧脉4-10对,纤细,不明显或在下面稍明显;叶柄长1-10毫米,无毛或有粃糠状短柔毛;托叶膜质,短鞘状,顶端不裂,长2-3毫米,宽2-5毫米,脱落。聚伞花序顶生,有时被秕糠状短柔毛,常三歧分枝,圆锥状或伞房状,长1.5-5厘米,宽1-5.5厘米,总花梗长达3厘米,少至多花;苞片和小苞片线状披针形,苞片长达2毫米,小苞片长约0.7毫米,常对生;花梗长0.5-1.5毫米;花萼倒圆锥形,长约2.5毫米,与花冠外面有时被秕糠状短柔毛,檐部扩大,顶端5浅裂,裂片三角形,长约0.5毫米;花冠白色,冠管与花冠裂片近等长,长1.5-3毫米,花冠裂片长圆形,喉部被白色长柔毛;花丝长约1毫米,花药长圆形,长约0.8毫米。浆果状核果球形或椭圆形,具纵棱,常呈白色,长4-7毫米,直径2.5-6毫米;果柄长1.5-5毫米;小核背面凸起,具纵棱,腹面平而光滑。花期4-6月,果期全年。
分布(Distribution):产浙江、福建、台湾、广东、香港、海南、广西。生于平地、丘陵、山地、山谷水旁的灌丛或林中,海拔70-1360米。分布于日本、朝鲜、越南、柬埔寨、老挝、泰国。
用途(Use):全株药用,功能舒筋活络、壮筋骨、祛风止痛、凉血消肿;治风湿痹痛、坐骨神经痛、痈疮肿毒、咽喉肿痛。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 19 Page 61, 294, 300    
Psychotria serpens Linnaeus, Mant. Pl. 2: 204. 1771.
蔓九节 man jiu jie | Rubiaceae  | Psychotria
Psychotria scandens Hooker & Arnott.
Climbing or creeping vines or lianas, to 6 m or more, rather fleshy, juvenile stems appressed to substrate with adventitious roots, reproductive stems spreading at apex; stems glabrous. Petiole 1-10 mm, glabrous; leaf blade drying papery to leathery, pale green, dark reddish green, reddish brown, or dark brown, often paler below, ovate or obovate on juvenile stems and elliptic, elliptic-oblong, lanceolate, oblanceolate, or obovate-oblong on reproductive stems, 0.7-9 × 0.5-3.8 cm, glabrous, base acute to obtuse, margins plane or sometimes thinly revolute, apex acute, obtuse, or sharply acuminate; secondary veins not visible or 3-10 pairs, not forming a submarginal vein, without domatia; stipules caducous, triangular to ovate, interpetiolar or shortly united around stem, 2-3 mm, glabrous, acute to rounded. Inflorescences terminal, cymose, glabrous to puberulent, few to many flowered, branched for 3-5 orders, pedunculate; peduncle 0.5-3 cm; branched portion corymbiform, 1-5 × 1-5.5(-10) cm; bracts subtending secondary axes 1-2 mm and triangular or often leaflike and 3-6 mm, those subtending pedicels triangular, 0.2-1.5 mm; pedicels 0.5-1.5 mm. Flowers pedicellate. Calyx glabrous to puberulent; hypanthium portion obconic, 0.8-1 mm; limb flared, 0.5-1 mm, partially lobed; lobes triangular, ca. 0.5 mm. Corolla white, funnelform, outside glabrous to usually puberulent; tube 1.5-3 mm, in throat densely villous; lobes ligulate-oblong, 1.5-2.5 mm. Drupes white, subglobose or ellipsoid, 4-7 × 2.5-6 mm, with pedicels to 5 mm; pyrenes shallowly 4- or 5-ribbed. Fl. Apr-Jun, fr. year-round.
Thickets or forests in ravines, mountains, hills, flat lands; below 100-1400 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Zhejiang [Cambodia, Japan, N Korea, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam].
This species is used medicinally.
W. C. Chen (in FRPS 71(2): 60. 1999) described the stems, petioles (but not the leaf blades), inflorescence axes, and calyces as spreading pubescent, but this has not been seen on any of the specimens studied nor reported by other authors.
This species is commonly collected and morphologically quite variable, including in drying color, leaf size and shape, inflorescence size, and fruit size. The climbing habit and white fruit of this species are unusual in the genus but similar to some other species of Asian Psychotria (Sohmer & Davis, Sida, Bot. Misc. 27: 1-247. 2007). The name P. ixoroides Bartling ex Candolle has been considered a synonym of P. serpens by some authors, notably Merrill, but Sohmer and Davis (loc. cit.: 41-45) considered P. ixoroides an accepted species in the Philippines. However, they did not make any comparison there with P. serpens. Psychotria serpens is also similar to P. sarmentosa Blume, which was considered a distinct species by Sohmer (in Dassanayake, Revis. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6: 349-352. 1987) again without any comparison to P. serpens.
 




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