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蓟Cirsium japonicum

时间:2013-11-11 14:12来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 蓟 学名( Scientific Name ): Cirsium japonicum Fisch. ex DC. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 山萝卜,大蓟 异名( Synonym ): Cnicus cerberus Vaniot Carduus japonicus (Fisch. e
中文名(Chinese Name):
学名(Scientific Name):Cirsium japonicum Fisch. ex DC.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):山萝卜,大蓟
异名(Synonym):Cnicus cerberus Vaniot  Carduus japonicus (Fisch. ex DC.) Franch.  Cirsium senile Nakai  Cnicus bodinieri Vaniot  Cirsium smithianum Petr.  Cirsium lacinulatum Nakai  Cirsium japonicum f. fukienense (Kitam.) Kitam.  Cirsium maackii var. intermedium (Maxim.) Nakai  Cirsium maackii var. kiusianum Nakai  Cirsium belingshanicum Petr. ex Hand.-Mazz.  Cirsium japonicum var. australe Kitam.  Cirsium japonicum var. fukienense Kitam.  Cirsium japonicum var. intermedium (Maxim.) Matsum.  Cirsium japonicum var. takaoense Kitam.  Cirsium bodinieri (Vaniot) H. Lév.  Cirsium cerberus (Vaniot) H. Lév.  Cirsium hainanense Masam.  Cnicus japonicus var. intermedius Maxim.  Alfredia japonica Miq.  Cirsium nakaianum (H.Lév. & Vaniot) Nakai  Cirsium xanthacanthum Nakai  Cirsium ibukiense Nakai  Cnicus nakaianus H.Lév. & Vaniot  Cirsium hainanensis Masam.  Cirsium kitagoense Nakai  Cirsium japonicum f. albiflorum Akasawa  Cirsium japonicum f. nakaianum (H.Lév. & Vaniot) W.Lee  Cirsium japonicum var. horridum Nakai  Cirsium japonicum var. ibukiense Nakai ex Kitam.  Cirsium japonicum var. kiusianum (Nakai) Nemoto  Cirsium japonicum var. vulcani (Franch. & Sav.) Nakai  Cirsium maackii var. horridum (Nakai) Nakai  Cirsium maackii var. vulcani (Nakai) Nakai
科属Family & Genus):菊科Compositae蓟属Cirsium
形态特征Description):多年生草本,块根纺锤状或萝卜状,直径达7毫米。茎直立,30(100)-80(150)厘米,分枝或不分枝,全部茎枝有条棱,被稠密或稀疏的多细胞长节毛,接头状花序下部灰白色, 被稠密绒毛及多细胞节毛。基生叶较大,全形卵形、长倒卵形、椭圆形或长椭圆形,长8-20 厘米,宽2.5-8厘米,羽状深裂或几全裂,基部渐狭成短或长翼柄,柄翼边缘有针刺及刺齿;侧裂片6-12对,中部侧裂片较大,向下及向下的侧裂片渐小,全部侧裂片排列稀疏或紧密,卵状披针形、半椭圆形、斜三角形、长三角形或三角状披针形,宽狭变化极大,或宽达3厘米,或狭至0.5厘米,边缘有稀疏大小不等小锯齿,或锯齿较大而使整个叶片呈现较为明显的二回状分裂状态,齿顶针刺长可达6毫米,短可至2毫米,齿缘针刺小而密或几无针刺;顶裂片披针形或长三角形。自基部向上的叶渐小,与基生叶同形并等样分裂,但无柄,基部扩大半抱茎。全部茎叶两面同色,绿色,两面沿脉有稀疏的多细胞长或短节毛或几无毛。头状花序直立,少有下垂的,少数生茎端而花序极短,不呈明显的花序式排列,少有头状花序单生茎端的。总苞钟状,直径3厘米。总苞片约6层,覆瓦状排列,向内层渐长,外层与中层卵状三角形至长三角形,长0.8-1.3厘米,宽3-3.5毫米,顶端长渐尖,有长1-2毫米的针刺;内层披针形或线状披针形,长1.5-2厘米,宽2-3毫米,顶端渐尖呈软针刺状。全部苞片外面有微糙毛并沿中肋有粘腺。瘦果压扁,偏斜楔状倒披针状,长4毫米,宽2.5毫米,顶端斜截形。小花红色或紫色,长2.1厘米,檐部长1.2厘米,不等5浅裂,细管部长9毫米。冠毛浅褐色,多层,基部联合成环,整体脱落;冠毛刚毛长羽毛状,长达2厘米,内层向顶端纺锤状扩大或渐细。花果期4-11月。
分布(Distribution):广布河北、山东、陕西、江苏、浙江、江西、湖南、湖北、四川、贵州、云南、广西、广东、福建和台湾。日本、朝鲜有分布。生于山坡林中、林缘、灌丛中、草地、荒地、田间、路旁或溪旁,海拔400-2100米。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 20-21 Page 162, 167 
Cirsium japonicum Candolle, Prodr. 6: 640. 1838.
蓟 ji| Asteraceae  | Cirsium
Carduus japonicus (Candolle) Franchet; Cirsium belingschanicum Petrak; C. bodinieri (Vaniot) H. Léveillé; C. cerberus (Vaniot) H. Léveillé; C. hainanense Masamune; C. japonicum var. australe Kitamura; C. japonicum var. fukienense Kitamura; C. japonicum var. intermedium (Maximowicz) Matsumura; C. japonicum var. takaoense Kitamura; C. kiusianum Nakai; C. lacinulatum Nakai; C. maackii Maximowicz var. intermedium (Maximowicz) Nakai; C. maackii var. kiusianum (Nakai) Nakai; C. senile Nakai; C. smithianum Petrak; Cnicus bodinieri Vaniot; C. cerberus Vaniot; C. japonicus (Candolle) Maximowicz; C. japonicus var. intermedius Maximowicz.
Herbs 30-80(-150) cm tall, perennial. Roots tuberous, fusiform. Stems grayish white, erect, unbranched or branched above, ribbed, unwinged, with sparse to dense long multicellular hairs mixed with dense felt under capitula. Leaves concolorous, green, with sparse multicellular hairs along veins or glabrous, surface smooth. Basal leaves present at anthesis, with winged petiole, wing spiny or with spiny teeth; leaf blade ovate, obovate, or ± narrowly elliptic, 8-20 × 2.5-8 cm, pinnately divided; segments 6-12 pairs, ovate-lanceolate, elliptic, ± narrowly triangular, or triangular-lanceolate, toothed, teeth with marginal and 2-6 mm apical spines; terminal segment largest, lanceolate to narrowly triangular. Lower and middle cauline leaves similar but sessile, gradually smaller upward, semiamplexicaul. Capitula solitary or few, clustered at end of stem, erect or rarely nodding. Involucre campanulate, ca. 3 cm in diam., glabrous or sparsely cobwebby. Phyllaries imbricate, in ca. 6 rows, lacking marginal spinules, wings, and scarious appendage, abaxially with a dark resinous gland; outer and middle phyllaries triangular to narrowly triangular, 8-13 × 3-3.5 mm, narrowed into a 1-2 mm spine; inner phyllaries lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 1.5-2 × 0.2-0.3 cm, apex acuminate and softly spiny. Florets bisexual. Corolla red to purple, ca. 2.1 cm, tube ca. 9 mm. Achene ca. 4 mm. Pappus bristles pale brown, ca. 2 cm. Fl. and fr. Apr-Nov.
Forests, forest margins, thickets, grasslands, wastelands, farmlands, roadsides, streamsides; 400-2100 m. Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Hubei, Hunan, S Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Nei Mongol, NE Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, Russia (Far East), Vietnam].
 








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