织梦CMS - 轻松建站从此开始!

花卉图片网

当前位置: 主页 > 野生花卉 >

紫花地丁Viola philippica

时间:2013-11-10 12:03来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 紫花地丁 学名( Scientific Name ): Viola philippica Cav. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 野堇菜 异名( Synonym ): Viola philippica subsp. malesica W. Becker Viola yedoensis f
中文名(Chinese Name):紫花地丁
学名(Scientific Name):Viola philippica Cav.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):野堇菜
异名(Synonym):Viola philippica subsp. malesica W. Becker  Viola yedoensis f. candida Kitag.  Viola yedoensis Makino  Viola philippica subsp. munda W. Becker  Viola philippica f. candida (Kitag.) Kitag.  Viola alisoviana Kiss  Viola patrinii var. chinensis Hayata  Viola alisoviana f. candida (Kitag.) Takenouchi  Viola chinensis f. alboviolacea Skvortsov  Viola chinensis f. anomala Skvortsov  Viola chinensis f. communis Skvortsov  Viola chinensis f. dissecta Skvortsov  Viola chinensis f. glabra Skvortsov
科属(Family & Genus):堇菜科(Violaceae)堇菜属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,无地上茎,高4-14厘米,果期高可达20余厘米。根状茎短,垂直,淡褐色,长4-13毫米,粗2-7毫米,节密生,有数条淡褐色或近白色的细根。叶多数,基生,莲座状;叶片下部者通常较小,呈三角状卵形或狭卵形,上部者较长,呈长圆形、狭卵状披针形或长圆状卵形,长1.5-4厘米,宽0.5-1厘米,先端圆钝,基部截形或楔形,稀微心形,边缘具较平的圆齿,两面无毛或被细短毛,有时仅下面沿叶脉被短毛,果期叶片增大,长可达10余厘米,宽可达4厘米;叶柄在花期通常长于叶片1-2倍,上部具极狭的翅,果期长可达10余厘米,上部具较宽之翅,无毛或被细短毛;托叶膜质,苍白色或淡绿色,长1.5-2.5厘米,2/3-4/5与叶柄合生,离生部分线状披针形,边缘疏生具腺体的流苏状细齿或近全缘。花中等大,紫堇色或淡紫色,稀呈白色,喉部色较淡并带有紫色条纹;花梗通常多,数,细弱,与叶片等长或高出于叶片,无毛或有短毛,中部附近有2枚线形小苞片;萼片卵状披针形或披针形,长5-7毫米,先端渐尖,基部附属物短,长1-1.5毫米,末端圆或截形,边缘具膜质白边,无毛或有短毛;花瓣倒卵形或长圆状倒卵形,侧方花瓣长,1-1.2厘米,里面无毛或有须毛,下方花瓣连距长1.3-2厘米,里面有紫色脉纹;距细管状,长4-8毫米,末端圆;花药长约2毫米,药隔顶部的附属物长约1.5毫米,下方2枚雄蕊背部的距细管状,长4-6毫米,末端稍细;子房卵形,无毛,花柱棍棒状,比子房稍长,基部稍膝曲,柱头三角形,两侧及后方稍增厚成微隆起的缘边,顶部略平,前方具短喙。蒴果长圆形,长5-12毫米,无毛;种子卵球形,长1.8毫米,淡黄色。花果期4月中下旬至9月。
分布(Distribution):产东北、华北、西南、内蒙古、河北、山西、陕西、甘肃、山东、河南、湖北、湖南、广西,生于田间、荒地、山坡草丛、林缘或灌丛中。朝鲜、日本、俄罗斯远东地区也有。
用途(Use):全草供药用,能清热解毒,凉血消肿。嫩叶可作野菜。可作早春观赏花卉。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 13 Page 77, 99    
Viola philippica Cavanilles, Icon. 6: 19. 1801.
紫花地丁 zi hua di ding| Violaceae  | Viola
Herbs perennial, acaulescent, 4-14 cm tall, to 20 cm tall at fruiting. Rhizome erect, brownish, short, 4-13 mm, 2-7 mm in diam., densely noded, with several yellowish or whitish rootlets. Leaves numerous, basal, rosulate; stipules glaucous or greenish, 1.5-2.5 cm, membranous, 2/3-4/5 adnate to petioles, free part linear-lanceolate, margin remotely glandular fimbriate-denticulate or subentire; petiole usually 1-2 × exceeding blades at anthesis, very narrowly winged in upper part, to 10 cm at fruiting, broadly winged in upper part, puberulous or glabrous; upper blades oblong-lanceolate or triangular-ovate, usually smaller than lower ones; lower ones oblong, narrowly ovate-lanceolate, or oblong-ovate, 1.5-4 × 0.5-1 cm, both surfaces glabrous or puberulous, sometimes only puberulous along veins abaxially, base truncate or cuneate, rarely slightly cordate, margin shallowly crenate, apex obtuse; blades accrescent at fruiting, to 10 × 4 cm. Flowers purple-violet or purplish, rarely white, light colored and purple-striate at throat, medium-sized; pedicels usually numerous, equaling or exceeding leaves, slender, glabrous or puberulous, 2-bracteolate near middle; bracteoles linear. Sepals ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 3-7 × 0.7-1.8 mm, apex acuminate; appendages short, 1-1.5 mm, 1/2 to 1/6 as long as sepal, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, apex rounded or denticulate. Petals obovate or oblong-obovate, lateral ones 1-1.2 cm, inside glabrous or rarely lightly bearded, anterior one 1.3-2 cm (spur included), inside purple-veined; spur tubular, 3-8 mm, 2-5 × as long as calycine appendages; anthers ca. 2 mm, appendage of connectives ca. 1.5 mm; spur of 2 anterior stamens tubular, 3-6 mm, apex slender. Ovary ovoid, glabrous; styles clavate, slightly exceeding ovary, base slightly geniculate; stigmas triangular with slightly thickened and raised margins on lateral sides and abaxially, slightly flat at top, shortly beaked in front. Capsule ellipsoid, 5-12 mm, glabrous. Seeds yellowish, ovoid-globose, ca. 1.8 mm. Fl. Apr-May, fr. May-Sep. 2n = 24*, 48.
Fields, grassy places on mountain slopes, forest margins, thickets, roadsides; below 1700 m. Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Laos, Mongolia, Philippines, Vietnam].
 


(责任编辑:徐晔春)
织梦二维码生成器
顶一下
(14)
93.3%
踩一下
(1)
6.7%
------分隔线----------------------------
发表评论
请自觉遵守互联网相关的政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
用户名: 验证码:点击我更换图片
栏目列表
推荐内容