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龙葵Solanum nigrum

时间:2013-11-09 17:20来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 龙葵 学名( Scientific Name ): Solanum nigrum L. 英文名( English Common Name ): black nightshade 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 野海椒 异名( Synonym ): Solanum nigrum var. atriplicifolium (Desp.) G. Mey.
中文名(Chinese Name):龙葵
学名(Scientific Name):Solanum nigrum L.
英文名(English Common Name):black nightshade
别名(Chinese Common Name):野海椒
异名(Synonym):Solanum nigrum var. atriplicifolium (Desp.) G. Mey.  Solanum morella Desv.  Solanum moschatum J.Presl  Solanum vulgare Hegetschw.  Solanum decipiens Opiz  Solanum dillenii Schult.  Solanum papilionaceum Dum.Cours.  Solanum judaicum Besser  Solanum pseudoflavum Pojark.  Solanum schultesii Opiz  Solanum repens Noronha, nomen nudum  Solanum morella subsp. nigrum (L.) Rouy  Solanum nigrum f. luridum Wessely  Solanum nigrum subsp. dillenii (Schult.) Probst  Solanum nigrum subsp. schultesii (Opiz) Wessely  Solanum nigrum var. dillenii (Schult.) A.Gray  Solanum vulgatum var. nigrum (L.) Spenn. 
科属Family & Genus):茄科(Solanaceae)茄属
形态特征(Description):一年生直立草本,高0.25-1米,茎无棱或棱不明显,绿色或紫色,近无毛或被微柔毛。叶卵形,长2.5-10厘米,宽1.5-5.5厘米,先端短尖,基部楔形至阔楔形而下延至叶柄,全缘或每边具不规则的波状粗齿,光滑或两面均被稀疏短柔毛,叶脉每边5-6条,叶柄长约1-2厘米。蝎尾状花序腋外生,由3-6-(10)花组成,总花梗长约1-2.5厘米,花梗长约5毫米,近无毛或具短柔毛;萼小,浅杯状,直径约1.5-2毫米,齿卵圆形,先端圆,基部两齿间连接处成角度;花冠白色,筒部隐于萼内,长不及1毫米,冠檐长约2.5毫米,5深裂,裂片卵圆形,长约2毫米;花丝短,花药黄色,长约1.2毫米,约为花丝长度的4倍,顶孔向内;子房卵形,直径约0.5毫米,花柱长约1.5毫米,中部以下被白色绒毛,柱头小,头状。浆果球形,直径约8毫米,熟时黑色。种子多数,近卵形,直径约1.5-2毫米,两侧压扁。
分布(Distribution):我国几乎全国均有分布,喜生于田边,荒地及村庄附近。广泛分布于欧、亚、美洲的温带至热带地区。
用途(Use):全株入药,可散瘀消肿,清热解毒。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 17 Page 318   
Solanum nigrum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 186. 1753.
龙葵 long kui| Solanaceae  | Solanum
Solanum nigrum var. atriplicifolium G. Meyer.
Herbs annual, erect, 25-100 cm, pubescent with simple hairs, unarmed. Stems often angular, sparsely pubescent. Petiole 2-5 cm; leaf blade ovate, 4-10 × 3-7 cm, pubescent or glabrescent, base cuneate, decurrent, entire or coarsely dentate, apex obtuse. Inflorescences extra-axillary umbels; peduncle 2-4 cm. Pedicel 0.8-1.2 cm. Calyx cup-shaped, 2-3 × 2-3 mm; lobes subdeltate, 0.5-1 × 1-1.5 mm, pubescent abaxially, ciliate. Corolla white, 8-10 mm; lobes ovate-oblong, 4-5 × 3-3.5 mm, pubescent abaxially, ciliate, spreading. Filaments 1-1.5 mm; anthers oblong, 2.5-3.5 mm. Style 5-6 mm. Fruiting pedicel strongly deflexed; fruiting calyx applied to berry. Berry dull black, globose, 8-10 mm in diam. Seeds discoid, ca. 2 mm in diam. Fl. May-Aug, fr. Jul-Nov.
600-3000 m. Fujian, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan [India, Japan; SW Asia, Europe]
The name Solanum nigrum has been commonly used to include many distinct but similar species, and more than one taxon may be represented in the material treated here under this name.
 




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