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蕨麻Potentilla anserina

时间:2013-11-07 13:33来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 蕨麻 学名( Scientific Name ): Potentilla anserina Linn. 英文名( English Common Name ): silverweed cinquefoil 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 鹅绒委陵菜 异名( Synonym ): Potentilla anserina var. sericea H
中文名(Chinese Name):蕨麻
学名(Scientific Name):Potentilla anserina Linn.
英文名(English Common Name):silverweed cinquefoil
别名(Chinese Common Name):鹅绒委陵菜
异名(Synonym):Potentilla anserina var. sericea Hayne  Potentilla anserina var. nuda Gaud.  Potentilla anserina var. viridis W. D. J. Koch  Potentilla anserina f. incisa Wolf.  Argentina anserina (L.) Rydb.  Potentilla yukonensis Hult‚n  Argentina anserina var. concolor (Ser.) Rydb.  Potentilla anserina var. yukonensis (Hult‚n) B.Boivin  Potentilla egedii subsp. yukonensis (Hult‚n) Hult‚n  Dactylophyllum anserinam (L.) Spenn.
科属(Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)委陵菜属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本。根向下延长,有时在根的下部长成纺锤形或椭圆形块根。茎匍匐,在节处生根,常着地长出新植株,外被伏生或半开展疏柔毛或脱落几无毛。基生叶为间断羽状复叶,有小叶6-11对,连叶柄长2-20厘米,叶柄被伏生或半开展疏柔毛,有时脱落几无毛。小叶对生或互生,无柄或顶生小叶有短柄,最上面一对小叶基部下延与叶轴汇合,基部小叶渐小呈附片状;小叶片通常椭圆形,倒卵椭圆形或长椭圆形,长1-2.5厘米,宽0.5-1厘米,顶端圆钝,基部楔形或阔楔形,边缘有多数尖锐锯齿或呈裂片状,上面绿色,被疏柔毛或脱落几无毛,下面密被紧贴银白色绢毛,叶脉明显或不明显,茎生叶与基生叶相似,惟小叶对数较少;基生叶和下部茎生叶托叶膜质,褐色,和叶柄连成鞘状,外面被疏柔毛或脱落几无毛,上部茎生叶托叶草质,多分裂。单花腋生;花梗长2.5-8厘米,被疏柔毛;花直径1.5-2厘米;萼片三角卵形,顶端急尖或渐尖,副萼片椭圆形或椭圆披针形,常2-3裂稀不裂,与副萼片近等长或稍短;花瓣黄色,倒卵形、顶端圆形,比萼片长1倍;花柱侧生,小枝状,柱头稍扩大。
分布(Distribution):产东北、内蒙古、河北、山西、陕西、甘肃、宁夏、青海、新疆、四川、云南、西藏,生海拔500-4100米河岸、路边、山坡草地及草甸。欧亚美三洲北半球温带,以及南美智利、大洋洲新西兰及塔斯马尼亚岛等地均有。
用途(Use):在甘肃、青海、西藏高寒地区,根部膨大,含丰富淀粉,市称“蕨麻”或“人参果”,治贫血和营养不良等,又可供甜制食品及酿酒用;根含鞣料,可提制栲胶,并可入药,作收敛剂;茎叶可提取黄色染料;又是蜜源植物和饲料,植物。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 305     
Potentilla anserina Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 495. 1753.
蕨麻 jue ma Rosaceae  | Potentilla
Potentilla anserina var. nuda Gaudin; P. anserina var. sericea Hayne; P. anserina var. viridis W. D. J. Koch.
Herbs perennial, stoloniferous. Roots sometimes with fusiform or ellipsoid tubers. Stems prostrate, creeping, together with petioles appressed or subspreading pilose or glabrescent, rooting at nodes and producing plantlets. Radical leaves 2–20 cm including petiole; auricles of stipules connate from base to rounded apex; leaf blade interrupted pinnate with 5–11 pairs of leaflets; terminal leaflet elliptic, obovate-elliptic, or oblong-elliptic, 1–2.5 × 0.5–1 cm, abaxially densely appressed silvery sericeous, rarely glabrescent, base decurrent in apical pair of leaflets, margin sharply many serrate; cauline leaves: auricles of stipules sheathing at base. Flower solitary, 1.5–2.5 cm in diam.; pedicel 2.5–8 cm, pilose. Epicalyx segments elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, margin usually 2- or 3-fid, rarely entire. Petals yellow, obovate, apex rounded. Style lateral. Achenes not seen. Fl. and fr. Jun–Aug. 2n = 28, 42.
Meadows, grasslands on mountain slopes, river and ditch banks, wet places, roadsides; 500--4100 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan [Asia, Australia (Tasmania), Europe, North America, Pacific Islands (New Zealand), South America (Chile)].
 




 
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