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列当Orobanche coerulescens

时间:2013-10-23 14:45来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):列当 学名( Scientific Name ): Orobanche coerulescens Steph. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 兔子拐棍、独根草 异名( Synonym ): Orobanche coerulescens f. korshinskyi (Novopokr
中文名(Chinese Name):列当
学名(Scientific Name):Orobanche coerulescens Steph.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):兔子拐棍、独根草
异名(Synonym):Orobanche coerulescens f. korshinskyi (Novopokr.) Ma  Orobanche japonensis Makino  Orobanche pycnostachya var. yunnanensis Beck  Orobanche nipponica Makino  Orobanche mairei H. Lév.  Orobanche coerulescens f. pekinensis Beck  Orobanche korshinskyi Novopokr.  Orobanche ammophila C. A. Mey.  Orobanche bodinieri H. Lév.  Orobanche coerulescens var. albiflora Kuntze  Orobanche coerulescens f. coerulescens
科属Family & Genus):列当科(Orobanchaceae)列当属
形态特征Description):二年生或多年生寄生草本,株高(-10)15-40(-50)厘米,全株密被蛛丝状长绵毛。茎直立,不分枝,具明显的条纹,基部常稍膨大。叶干后黄褐色,生于茎下部的较密集,上部的渐变稀疏,卵状披针形,长1.5-2厘米,宽5-7毫米,连同苞片和花萼外面及边缘密被蛛丝状长绵毛。花多数,排列成穗状花序,长10-20厘米,顶端钝圆或呈锥状;苞片与叶同形并近等大,先端尾状渐尖。花萼长1.2-1.5厘米,2深裂达近基部,每裂片中部以上再2浅裂,小裂片狭披针形,长3-5毫米,先端长尾状渐尖。花冠深蓝色、蓝紫色或淡紫色,长2-2.5厘米,筒部在花丝着生处稍上方缢缩,口部稍扩大;上唇2浅裂,极少顶端微凹,下唇3裂,裂片近圆形或长圆形,中间的较大,顶端钝圆,边缘具不规则小圆齿。雄蕊4枚,花丝着生于筒中部,长约1-1.2厘米,基部略增粗,常被长柔毛,花药卵形,长约2毫米,无毛。雌蕊长1.5-1.7厘米,子房椭圆体状或圆柱状,花柱与花丝近等长,常无毛,柱头常2浅裂。蒴果卵状长圆形或圆柱形,干后深褐色,长约1厘米,直径0.4厘米。种子多数,干后黑褐色,不规则椭圆形或长卵形,长约0.3毫米,直径0.15毫米,表面具网状纹饰,网眼底部具蜂巢状凹点。花期4-7月,果期7-9月。
分布(Distribution):广泛分布于东北、华北、西北地区以及山东、湖北、四川、云南和西藏,常寄生于蒿属植物的根上,生于海拔850-4000米砂丘、山坡及沟边草地上。朝鲜、日本和俄罗斯也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 18 Page 234   
Orobanche coerulescens Stephan in Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 3: 349. 1800.
列当 lie dang| Orobanchaceae  | Orobanche
Orobanche ammophila C. A. Meyer; O. bodinieri H. Léveillé; O. canescens Bunge; O. coerulescens var. albiflora Kuntze; O. coerulescens f. korshinskyi (Novopokrovsky) Ma; O. coerulescens f. pekinensis Beck; O. korshinskyi Novopokrovsky; O. mairei H. Léveillé; O. japonensis Makino; O. nipponicaMakino; O. pycnostachya Hance var. yunnanensis Beck.
Herbs biennial, 15-40(-50) cm tall, densely villous. Stems erect, unbranched. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, 1.5-2 cm X 5-7 mm, along with bracts and calyx densely villous at margin and abaxially. Inflorescences 10-20 cm; bract similar to leaves; bractlets absent. Calyx 1.2-1.5 cm, 2-parted almost to base; segments divided to half; lobes narrowly lanceolate, 3-5 mm. Corolla dark blue, blue-purple, pale purple, or yellow, 2-2.5 cm; tube constricted, open upward; upper lip 2-lobed, rarely emarginate. Filaments 1.2-1.4 cm, usually villous; anthers ovoid, ca. 2 mm, glabrous. Pistil 1.5-1.7 cm; ovary ellipsoid. Style as long as filaments, usually glabrous; stigma 2-lobed. Capsule ovoid-oblong or oblong, ca. 10 X 4 mm. Seeds irregularly ellipsoid or long ovoid, ca. 0.3 mm. 2n = 38.
Slopes, grasslands; 900-4000 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Hubei, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan [Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Nepal, Russia, Turkmenistan; Europe].
Parasitic on species of Artemisia Linnaeus.
The whole plant is used medicinally for invigorating the kidneys and strengthening yang, relaxing the bowels, strengthening bones and muscles.
Plants with white-yellow flowers, which have been recognized as f. korshinskyi or var. albiflora, are distributed in Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Liaoning, and Nei Mongol, as well as in Europe, Mongolia, and Russia.


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