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裂叶月见草Oenothera laciniata

时间:2013-10-23 14:29来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):裂叶月见草 学名( Scientific Name ): Oenothera laciniata Hill 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Raimannia laciniata (Hill) Rose Oenothera sinuata L. 科属( Fam
中文名(Chinese Name):裂叶月见草
学名(Scientific Name):Oenothera laciniata Hill
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym): Raimannia laciniata (Hill) Rose  Oenothera sinuata L.
科属(Family & Genus):柳叶菜科(Onagraceae)月见草属
形态特征(Description):直立至外倾一年生或多年生草本,具主根;茎长10-50厘米,常分枝,被曲柔毛,有时混生长柔毛,在茎上部常混生腺毛。基部叶线状倒披针形,长5-15厘米,宽1-2.5厘米,先端锐尖,基部楔形,边缘羽状深裂,向着先端常全缘;叶柄长0.5-1.5厘米;茎生叶狭倒卵形或狭椭圆形,长4-10厘米,宽0.7-3厘米,先端锐尖或稍钝,基部楔形,下部常羽状裂,中上部具齿,上部近全缘;苞片叶状,狭长圆形或狭卵形,长2-6厘米,宽1-2厘米,近水平开展,先端锐尖,基部钝至楔形,边缘疏生浅齿或基部具少数羽状裂片;所有叶及苞片绿色,被曲柔毛及长柔毛,上部的常混生腺毛。花序穗状,由少数花组成,生茎枝顶部,有时主序下部有少数分枝,每日近日落时每序开一朵花。花蕾长圆形呈卵状,长2-3厘米,径3-5毫米,开放前常向上曲伸。花管带黄色,盛开时带红色,长1.5-3.5厘米,径约1毫米,常被长柔毛与腺毛,有时混生曲柔毛,萼片绿色或黄绿色,开放时反折,变红色,尤边缘红色,芽时先端游离萼齿长0.5-3毫米,被曲柔毛与长柔毛;花瓣淡黄至黄色,宽倒卵形,长0.5-1.3(-2)厘米,宽0.7-1.2(-1.8)厘米,先端截形至微凹;花丝长0.3-1.3厘米;花药长2-6毫米,花粉约50%发育;子房长1-2.3厘米,径约1.5毫米,被曲柔毛与长柔毛,有时混生腺毛;花柱长2-5厘米,伸出花管部分长0.3-1.4厘米;柱头围以花药,裂片长2.5-5毫米,花粉直接授在裂片上。蒴果圆柱状,向顶变狭,长2.5-5厘米,径2-4毫米。种子每室2列,椭圆状至近球状,长0.8-1.8毫米,褐色,表面具整齐的洼点。花期4-9月,果期5-11月。
分布(Distribution):原产美国东部至中部,后引自欧洲、东亚、澳大利亚、南非栽培,并迅速逸出野化。我国台湾北部逸出野化,海拔50-1300米,生海滨沙滩或低海拔开旷荒地、田边处。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 13 Page 423, 425
Oenothera laciniata Hill, Veg. Syst. 12, App.: 64. 1767.
裂叶月见草 lie ye yue jian cao | Onagraceae  | Oenothera
Raimannia laciniata (Hill) Rose ex Britton & A. Brown.
Herbs erect to procumbent, annual or short-lived perennial, usually with basal rosette. Stems 5-50(-100) cm tall, simple or branched, strigillose and often villous, often with glandular hairs on inflorescence. Leaves green, with inconspicuous veins, strigillose and villous, often also glandular puberulous, sessile to shortly petiolate; rosette blade 4-15 × 1-3 cm; cauline blade narrowly oblanceolate to lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, 2-10 × 0.5-3.5 cm, base narrowly cuneate, margin deeply lobed to dentate, apex acute. Inflorescence a lax open spike. Flowers open near sunset, one per stem per day; floral tube 1.2-3.5 cm, upcurved in bud. Sepals 5-15 mm, with free tips 0.3-3 mm, apical, spreading. Petals yellow to pale yellow, fading to orange, 5-22 mm. Anthers 2-6 mm; pollen ca. 50% fertile. Ovary strigillose, with spreading and sometimes a few glandular hairs; stigma surrounded by anthers. Capsules cylindric, 2-5 cm, sessile. Seeds in two rows per locule, brown to dark brown, ellipsoid to suborbicular, 0.9-1.8 mm, pitted. Fl. Apr-Sep(-Oct), fr. May-Oct. 2n = 14, permanent translocation heterozygote; self-compatible, autogamous.
Open, disturbed, usually sandy sites, often along coastal areas; near sea level to 400 m. Fujian, Taiwan [Japan; native to E North America, naturalized in S Africa, Australia, Central America, Europe, and South America].




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