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苘麻Abutilon theophrasti

时间:2013-10-16 18:54来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):苘麻 学名( Scientific Name ): Abutilon theophrasti Medik. 英文名( English Common Name ): velvetleaf 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 桐麻、青麻 异名( Synonym ): Abutilon avicennae f. nigrum Skvortsov Abuti
中文名(Chinese Name):苘麻
学名(Scientific Name):Abutilon theophrasti Medik.
英文名(English Common Name):velvetleaf
别名(Chinese Common Name):桐麻、青麻
异名(Synonym):Abutilon avicennae f. nigrum Skvortsov  Abutilon theophrasti var. chinense (Skvortsov) S. Y. Hu  Abutilon avicennae Gaertn.  Abutilon avicennae var. chinense Skvortsov  Abutilon avicennae var. genuina Skvortsov  Abutilon theophrasti var. nigrum (Skvortsov) S. Y. Hu  Sida tiliifolia Fisch.  Sida abutilon L.  Abutilon tiliifolium (Fisch.) Sweet.  Malva abutilon E.H.L. Krause  Sida planiflora Cav.  Side abutila St.-Lag.
科属(Family & Genus):锦葵科(Malvaceae)苘麻属
形态特征(Description):一年生亚灌木状草本,高达1-2米,茎枝被柔毛。叶互生,圆心形,长5-10厘米,先端长渐尖,基部心形,边缘具细圆锯齿,两面均密被星状柔毛;叶柄长3-12厘米,被星状细柔毛;托叶早落。花单生于叶腋,花梗长1-13厘米,被柔毛,近顶端具节;花萼杯状,密被短绒毛,裂片5,卵形,长约6毫米;花黄色,花瓣倒卵形,长约1厘米;雄蕊柱平滑无毛,心皮15-20,长1-1.5厘米,顶端平截,具扩展、被毛的长芒2,排列成轮状,密被软毛。蒴果半球形,直径约2厘米,长约1.2厘米,分果爿15-20,被粗毛,顶端具长芒2;种子肾形,褐色,被星状柔毛。花期7-8月。
分布(Distribution):我国除青藏高原不产外,其他各省区均产,东北各地有栽培。越南、印度、日本以及欧洲、北美洲等地区也有。
用途(Use):本种的茎皮纤维色白,具光泽,可编织麻袋、搓绳索、编麻鞋等纺织材料。种子含油量约15-16%,供制皂、油漆和工业用润滑油;种子作药用称“冬葵子”,润滑性利尿剂,并有通乳汁、消乳腺炎、顺产等功效。全草也作药用。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 12 Page 276, 277, 278
Abutilon theophrasti Medikus, Malvenfam. 28. 1787.
苘麻 qing ma| Malvaceae  | Abutilon
Sida abutilon Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 685. 1753; Abutilon avicennae Gaertner, nom. illeg. superfl.; A. avicennae var. chinense Skvortsov; A. avicennae f. nigrum Skvortsov; A. californicum Bentham; A. pubescens Moench; A. theophrasti var. chinense (Skvortsov) S. Y. Hu; A. theophrasti var. nigrum (Skvortsov) S. Y. Hu; A. tiliifolium (Fischer) Sweet; S. tiliifolia Fischer.
Herbs subshrublike, annual, 1-2 m tall. Petiole 3-12 cm, stellate hairy; leaf blade orbicular-cordate, 5-10 cm in diam., both surfaces densely stellate pubescent, base cordate, margin minutely crenate, apex long acuminate. Flowers solitary, axillary, yellow. Pedicel 1-3 cm, pubescent, articulate near apex. Calyx cup-shaped, densely puberulent, lobes 5, ovate, ca. 6 mm. Corolla uniformly yellow; petals obovate, ca. 1 cm. Filament tube glabrous. Ovary 15-20-loculed, 1-1.5 cm, densely pubescent, apex truncate. Capsule semiglobose, ca. 1.2 × 2 cm; mericarps 15-20, stellate pilose, apex 2-awned, awns spreading, 3-5 mm, hairy. Seed reniform, brown, stellate puberulent. Fl. Jul-Aug.
Disturbed areas, neglected fields, also cultivated. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Yunnan [India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam; Africa, SW Asia, Australia, Europe, North America].
Abutilon theophrasti is extensively cultivated for its bast fibers, which are used to make string, rope, shoes, rugs, and countless other items; it is also used medicinally for fever, dysentery, and stomachaches. The fiber is known as "China Jute" or "Tientsin Jute."




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