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中长冠鼠尾草Salvia plectranthoides

时间:2013-09-25 13:27来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 长冠鼠尾草 学名( Scientific Name ): Salvia plectranthoides Griff. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 丹参, 活血草 异名( Synonym ): Salvia tuberifera H. Lv. Salvia japonica var
中文名(Chinese Name): 长冠鼠尾草
学名(Scientific Name):Salvia plectranthoides Griff.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):丹参, 活血草
异名(Synonym):Salvia tuberifera H. Lév.  Salvia japonica var. gracillima Diels  Salvia japonica var. parvifoliola Hemsl.  Salvia japonica var. kaiscianensis Pamp.
科属Family & Genus):唇形科(Labiatae)鼠尾草属
形态特征(Description):一年生或二年生草本;根茎匍匐或斜上升,短,近木质,根常增大成块根状,梭形,长1.5-3(5)厘米,粗3-5毫米,外皮朱红色,侧根丝状,多数。茎直立或从基部上升,单生或少数丛生,钝四稜形,具槽,密被短柔毛,其间有开展的疏柔毛,或仅被开展疏柔毛。叶基出及茎生,为三出叶至5-7小叶的奇数羽状复叶或二回羽状复叶,小叶卵形、近圆形至披针形,长0.5-5厘米,宽与长相等或较狭,先端急尖至渐尖,或钝至近圆形,基部偏斜,宽楔形或圆形,边缘具圆齿或圆齿状牙齿,草质,常下面带紫色,两面无毛或上面略被下面沿脉上被疏柔毛,下面具腺点,叶柄比叶片长或稍短,腹凹背凸,基部略宽大;被开展长柔毛或变无毛。轮伞花序(2)5-7花,疏离,组成伸长的顶生总状或总状圆锥花序;苞片小,披针形,与花梗等长或短于花梗,先端渐尖,基部楔形,全缘,具长纤毛;花梗长1-2毫米,与花序轴密被具腺疏柔毛。花萼钟状筒形或筒形,开花时长5-8毫米,外面在脉上被具腺短柔毛,疏生浅黄色腺点,内面无硬毛环,在上半部被微硬伏毛,二唇形,唇裂约至花萼长1/4,上唇半圆形,长约1.5毫米,宽约2.5毫米,全缘,先端具3靠合小齿,下唇与上唇近等长,宽达3毫米,深2裂,齿三角形,先端渐尖,果时花萼增大,长7-11毫米,外面变无毛。花冠红、淡紫、紫红、紫至紫蓝色,稀为白色,长1.1-2.0厘米,外面被短疏柔毛,内面近无毛,冠筒管状,长约为花萼2-3倍,在上部稍增大,冠檐二唇形,上唇直伸,长约3毫米,宽 1.75毫米,先端微缺,下唇宽大,稍长于上唇,3裂,中裂片最大,倒心形,先端微缺,边缘浅波状,侧裂片近半圆形,较小。能育雄蕊2,稍外伸,花丝长2-3毫米,药隔近伸直,长3-4毫米,上臂稍长,下臂顶端稍膨大,且彼此联合。花柱外伸,先端不相等2裂,后裂片较短。花盘前方略膨大。小坚果长圆形,长约2.5毫米,腹面具稜,顶端圆,淡褐色,稜棕褐色。花期5-8月。
分布(Distribution):产陕西,湖北,贵州,云南,四川,广西;生于山坡、山谷、疏林下、溪边,海拔800-2500米。锡金,不丹也有。模式标本采自不丹。
用途(Use):贵州用全草入药,治感冒风寒及腹痛。四月}用于治妇科病并可通经活络。广西用根泡酒治伤风咳嗽。
引自植物志英文版FOC Vol. 17 Page 215
Salvia plectranthoides Griffith, Not. Pl. Asiat. 4: 199. 1854.
长冠鼠尾草 chang guan shu wei cao| Lamiaceae  | Salvia
Salvia japonica Thunberg var. gracillima Diels; S. japonica var. kaiscianensis Pampanini; S. japonica var. parvifoliola Hemsley; S. pinnata Pavolini; S. tuberifera H. Léveillé.
Plants annual or biennial. Stems 1 to few, erect or ascending, spreading pilose. Leaves ternate to 5-7-foliolate or 2-pinnate; petiole slightly shorter to longer than blade; leaflets ovate to lanceolate, 0.5-5 × to 5 cm, abaxially purplish, glandular, base broadly cuneate to rounded, margin crenate or crenate-dentate, apex acuminate to rounded. Inflorescences densely glandular pilose; verticillasters (2-)5-7-flowered, widely spaced, in elongated racemes or panicles; bracts lanceolate, to 2 mm. Pedicel 1-2 mm. Calyx campanulate-tubular, 5-8 mm in flower, 2-lipped to ca. 1/4 its length, yellowish glandular, veins glandular pubescent; upper lip semicircular, ca. 1.5 × 2.5 mm, margin entire; lower lip ca. 1.5 mm, to 3 mm wide, deeply 2-toothed; fruiting calyx 7-11 mm, glabrescent. Corolla red to purplish or purple-blue, rarely white, 1.1-2 cm, finely pilose; tube tubular, 2-3 × as long as calyx, slightly dilated at apex; upper lip straight, ca. 3 × 1.8 mm; lower lip dilated, somewhat longer than upper lip, middle lobe obcordate, lateral lobes subcircular. Filaments 2-3 mm; connectives suberect, 3-4 mm, upper arms longer than lower. Nutlets brownish, blackish brown on midvein, oblong, ca. 2.5 mm, adaxially ribbed, rounded. Fl. May-Aug.
Hillsides, streamsides in valleys, sparse forests; 800-2500 m. Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan [Bhutan, India]
Used medicinally.


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