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荨麻叶龙头草Meehania urticifolia

时间:2013-09-25 13:14来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):荨麻叶龙头草 学名( Scientific Name ): Meehania urticifolia (Miq.) Makino 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 美汉草,美汉花,芝麻花 异名( Synonym ): Dracocephalum sinense S. Moore
中文名(Chinese Name):荨麻叶龙头草
学名(Scientific Name):Meehania urticifolia (Miq.) Makino
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name): 美汉草,美汉花,芝麻花
异名(Synonym):Dracocephalum sinense S. Moore  Meehania urticifolia var. typica Kudo  Dracocephalum urticifolium Miq.  Glechoma urticolia (Miq.) Makino  Cedronella urticifolia (Miq.) Maxim.  Glechoma urticifolia Makino  Meehania urticifolia f. rosea J.Ohara
科属(Family & Genus):唇形科(Labiatae)龙头草属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,丛生,直立,高20-40厘米。茎细弱,不分枝,幼嫩部分通常被长柔毛或倒生的长柔毛,以后除节上外,其余无毛或几无毛,顶端无花者,常伸出细长柔软的匍匐茎,逐节生根。叶具柄,柄长0.5-4厘米,向上渐变短,有时近无柄,幼时密被长柔毛,老时毛被渐疏生;叶片纸质,心脏形或卵状心脏形,长3.2-8.2厘米,宽2.6-6.8厘米,通常以着生于茎中部的叶片较大,先端渐尖或急尖,基部心形,边缘具略疏或密的锯齿或圆锯齿,两面被疏柔毛,以脉上较多,有时下面仅脉上被极疏的疏柔毛,中肋与侧脉在上面稍下陷下面隆起。花组成轮伞花序,稀成对组成顶生假总状花序;苞片向上渐变小,具柄至近无柄,卵形至披针形,长在3.5厘米以下,边缘具锯齿及缘毛,两面被柔毛;花梗长3-9毫米,被长柔毛,常在中部具一对小苞片;小苞片钻形,长约1毫米。花萼花时呈钟形,长1.3-1.8厘米,具15脉,脉不甚明显,外面仅脉上被蜷曲疏柔毛或疏被微柔毛,内面无毛,齿5,略呈二唇形,上唇具3齿,略高,下唇具2齿,齿卵形或卵状三角形,稀近三角形,长约3毫米,具缘毛,先端突尖或急尖,稀渐尖,果时花萼呈钟形,基部略膨大。花冠淡蓝紫色至紫红色,长2.2-4厘米,外面被极疏的柔毛,背脊上具一行柔毛,内面于上唇、中裂片及花冠管基部被柔毛,冠筒基部不成毛环,冠筒管状,上半部逐渐扩大,冠檐二唇形,上唇直立,椭圆形,顶端2浅裂或深裂,裂片圆形或近长圆形,下唇伸长,增大,3裂,中裂片扇形,顶端微凹,两侧中部凹入,两侧裂片小,近卵形或长圆形,长不及中裂片之半或为其2/5。雄蕊4,略二强,不伸出花冠外,后对着生于上唇下方喉部或略低,前对着生于下唇两侧裂片下方花冠筒中部,花丝略扁而无毛,花药2室,无毛,成熟后贯通为1室。子房4裂,被微柔毛。花柱细长,较雄蕊长,微伸出花冠外,先端2浅裂。花盘杯状,裂片不明显,前方呈指状膨大。小坚果卵状长圆形,被短柔毛,近基部腹面微呈三棱形,基部具一小果脐。花期5-6月,果期6月。
分布(Distribution):产辽宁,吉林;生于混交林或针叶林林下苔藓中阴湿处。日本,朝鲜,苏联也有。模式标本采自日本。
用途(Use):
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 17 Page 122
Meehania urticifolia (Miquel) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo). 13: 159. 1899.
荨麻叶龙头草 qian ma ye long tou cao | Lamiaceae  | Meehania
Dracocephalum urticifolium Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavum 2: 109. 1865; Cedronella urticifolia (Miquel) Maximowicz; D. sinense S. Moore; Glechoma urticifolia (Miquel) Makino.
Herbs perennial. Stems slender, erect, tufted, 20-40 cm, unbranched, villous or retrorse villous when young, glabrous or subglabrous except for nodes. Leaves largest at mid stem; petiole 0.5-4 cm, shorter toward apex, sometimes obsolete; leaf blade cordate to ovate-cordate, 3.2-8.2 × 2.6-6.8 cm, pilose, base cordate, margin serrate to crenate-serrate, apex acuminate to acute. Verticillasters 2- to few flowered, in terminal racemes; adaxial floral leaves ovate to lanceolate, less than 3.5 cm, villous; bracteoles subulate, ca. 1 mm. Pedicel 3-9 mm. Calyx campanulate, 1.3-1.8 cm, floccose-pilose or sparsely puberulent; teeth ovate to ovate-triangular, ca. 3 mm, ciliate, apex acute or cuspidate, rarely acuminate, adaxial teeth longer. Corolla bluish purple to purple-red, 2.2-4 cm, villous, gradually dilated at apex; upper lip straight, elliptic, 2-lobed, lobes circular to suboblong; lower lip dilated, middle lobe flabellate, apex emarginate; lateral lobes small, subovate to oblong, 2/5-1/2 as long as middle lobe. Nutlets ovoid-oblong, adaxially slightly triquetrous at base, pubescent, base small umbonate. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Jun.
Mossy areas in mixed and coniferous forests. Jilin, Liaoning [Japan, Korea, Russia].




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