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龙头草Meehania henryi

时间:2013-09-25 13:15来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):龙头草 学名( Scientific Name ): Meehania henryi (Hemsl.) Sun ex C. Y. Wu 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 长穗美汉花 异名( Synonym ): Dracocephalum cavaleriei H. Lv. Dracocep
中文名(Chinese Name):龙头草
学名(Scientific Name):Meehania henryi (Hemsl.) Sun ex C. Y. Wu
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):长穗美汉花
异名(Synonym):Dracocephalum cavaleriei H. Lév.  Dracocephalum henryi Hemsl.  Meehania urticifolia var. henryi (Hemsl.) Kudo
科属(Family & Genus):唇形科(Labiatae)龙头草属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,直立,高30-60厘米。茎四棱形,除幼嫩部分被疏柔毛及节上被柔毛外,余部无毛或几无毛。叶具长柄,柄长10厘米以下,向上渐变短或几无柄,腹面具槽,两侧边缘具疏长柔毛;叶片纸质或近膜质,卵状心形、心形或卵形,长4-13厘米,宽1.8-4厘米,有时长达17厘米,宽达10厘米,以着生于茎中部的叶较大,先端渐尖,基部心形,在茎上部者有时略偏斜,边缘具波状锯齿或粗齿,上面被疏微柔毛,以脉上为密,下面几无毛,脉隆起。花序腋生和顶生,为聚伞花序组成的假总状花序,有时有分枝或仅有1朵花腋生,花序长6-9厘米,密被微柔毛;苞片小,卵状披针形或披针形,长3-6毫米,具齿;花梗长1-4毫米,被微柔毛,中部具1对小苞片;小苞片钻形,长约1毫米。花萼花时狭管形,口部微开张,长1-1.3厘米,具25脉,外面被微柔毛,内面无毛,齿5,呈二唇形,上唇3齿,较高,下唇2齿,齿均三角形,长为花萼长的1/3,具缘毛,先端渐尖,果时萼筒基部膨大成囊状。花冠淡红紫或淡紫色,长2.3-3.7厘米,外面被极疏的微柔毛,有时背部具少数疏柔毛,内面在冠筒基部具柔毛,但不成毛环,冠筒直立,管状,细,上半部渐扩大,冠檐二唇形,上唇微弯,2裂,裂片长圆形,下唇增大,伸长,3裂,中裂片扇形,顶端微凹,内面具长柔毛,两侧裂片长圆形长为中裂片的1/2。雄蕊4,二强,内藏,后对着生于上唇下方花冠喉部,前对着生于下唇两侧裂片下方冠筒中部,花丝细,无毛,花药2室,被微柔毛。子房4裂,被微柔毛。花柱细长,略长于雄蕊,微伸出花冠,先端2裂,无毛。花盘杯状,裂片不明显,前方呈指状膨大。小坚果圆状长圆形,平滑,密被短柔毛,腹面微呈三棱形,基部具一小果脐。花期9月,果期9月以后。
分布(Distribution):产湖北、四川、湖南及贵州;生于低海拔地区的常绿林或混交林下。
用途(Use):民间用叶外敷蛇咬伤;根浸酒服,补血。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 17 Page 123
Meehania henryi (Hemsley) Sun ex C. Y. Wu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 15. 1959.
龙头草 long tou cao | Lamiaceae  | Meehania
Herbs perennial. Stems erect, 30-60 cm, pilose when young, glabrous or subglabrous except villous on nodes. Leaves subsessile at stem apex; petiole less than 10 cm, sometimes dilated at apex; leaf blade 4-13(-17) × 1.8-4(-10) cm, papery or ± membranous, adaxially puberulent, abaxially subglabrous, apex acuminate. Verticillasters 2- to many flowered, in terminal and lateral racemes 6-7 cm; bracts ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, 3-6 mm, margin dentate; bracteoles subulate, ca. 1 mm. Pedicel 1-4 mm. Calyx narrowly tubular, opening slightly at mouth, 1-1.3 cm, puberulent, base saccate in fruit; teeth triangular, 3-4 mm, ciliate, apex acuminate, adaxial teeth longer. Corolla reddish purple or purplish, 2.3-2.7 cm, sparsely puberulent; tube straight, tubular, slender, gradually dilated at apex; upper lip slightly curved, lobes oblong; middle lobe of lower lip flabellate, apex emarginate, villous inside; lateral lobes oblong, ca. 1/2 as long as middle lobe. Stamens included. Nutlets globose-oblong, smooth, densely pubescent, adaxially slightly triquetrous, base small umbonate. Fl. Sep, fr. Oct.
* Streamsides, evergreen broad-leaved and mixed forests; 500-700 m. Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan





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