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香青兰Dracocephalum moldavica

时间:2013-09-25 13:01来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):香青兰 学名( Scientific Name ): Dracocephalum moldavica L. 英文名( English Common Name ): Moldavian dragonhead 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 山薄荷、青蓝 异名 ( Synonym ): Moldavica moldavica (L.) Britt
中文名(Chinese Name):香青兰
学名(Scientific Name):Dracocephalum moldavica L.
英文名(English Common Name):Moldavian dragonhead
别名(Chinese Common Name):山薄荷、青蓝
异名Synonym):Moldavica moldavica (L.) Britt.  Dracocephalum fragrans Salisb.  Moldavica punctata Moench  Moldavica setosa Stokes  Moldavica suaveolens Gilib.  Nepeta moldavica (L.) Baill.  Ruyschiana moldavica (L.) House
科属(Family & Genus):唇形科(Labiatae)青兰属
形态特征(Description):一年生草本,高(6-)22-40厘米;直根圆柱形,径2-4.5毫米。茎数个,直立或渐升,常在中部以下具分枝,不明显四棱形,被倒向的小毛,常带紫色。基生叶卵圆状三角形,先端圆钝,基部心形,具疏圆齿,具长柄,很快枯萎;下部茎生叶与基生叶近似,具与叶片等长之柄,中部以上者具短柄,柄为叶片之1/2-1/4以下,叶片披针形至线状披针形,先端钝,基部圆形或宽楔形,长1.4-4厘米,宽0.4-1.2厘米,两面只在脉上疏被小毛及黄色小腺点,边缘通常具不规则至规则的三角形牙齿或疏锯齿,有时基部的牙齿成小裂片状,分裂较深,常具长刺。轮伞花序生于茎或分枝上部5-12节处,占长度3-11厘米,疏松,通常具4花;花梗长3-5毫米,花后平折;苞片长圆形,稍长或短于萼,疏被贴伏的小毛,每侧具2-3小齿,齿具长2.5-3.5毫米的长刺。花萼长8-10毫米,被金黄色腺点及短毛,下部较密,脉常带紫色,2裂近中部,上唇3浅裂至本身1/4-1/3处,3齿近等大,三角状卵形,先端锐尖,下唇2裂近本身基部,裂片披针形。花冠淡蓝紫色,长1.5-2.5(-3)厘米,喉部以上宽展,外面被白色短柔毛,冠檐二唇形,上唇短舟形,长约为冠筒的1/4,先端微凹,下唇3裂,中裂片扁,2裂,具深紫色斑点,有短柄,柄上有2突起,侧裂片平截。雄蕊微伸出,花丝无毛,先端尖细,药平叉开。花柱无毛,先端2等裂。小坚果长约2.5毫米,长圆形,顶平截,光滑。
分布(Distribution):产东北,华北及西北;生于海拔220-1600米干燥山地、山谷、河滩多石处。俄罗斯,东欧、中欧、南延至克什米尔地区均有分布。
用途(Use):全株含芳香油,据国外报道含油量在0.01-0.17%,油的主要成分为柠檬醛25-68%,香叶醇80%,橙花醇7%。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 17 Page 128
Dracocephalum moldavica Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 595. 1753.
香青兰 xiang qing lan| Lamiaceae  | Dracocephalum
Herbs annual. Stems numerous, (6-)22-40 cm, erect or ascending, minutely retrorse hairy, purplish. Basal cauline leaves withering early; petiole as long as blade, shorter upward; leaf blade ovate-triangular, base cordate, margin remotely crenate, apex rounded; upper blades lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 1.4-4 × 0.4-1.2 cm, yellow glandular, veins sparsely minute hairy, base rounded to broadly cuneate, margin triangular-dentate or sparsely serrate, with basal teeth sometimes lobelike, apex long spiny, obtuse. Verticillasters 4-flowered, loose, in 5-12 upper nodes of stems and branches; bracts oblong, shorter to slightly longer than calyx, margin 2- or 3-spinescent-denticulate, with spines 2.5-3.5 mm, sparsely appressed hairy. Pedicel 3-5 mm, horizontal after anthesis. Calyx 8-10 mm, golden glandular, pubescent especially basally, purple veined, 2-lipped to 1/2 its length; upper lip teeth divisions 1/4-1/3 of lip, teeth subequal, triangular-ovate, apex acute. Corolla bluish purple, 1.5-2.5 (-3) cm, dilated beyond throat, white pubescent outside; upper lip short navicular, ca. 1/4 as long as tube; middle lobe of lower lip dark purple spotted. Nutlets oblong, ca. 2.5 mm, apex truncate, smooth.
Dry hills, stony riverbanks, valleys; 200-2700 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi [India, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan; Europe]
Source of an essential oil, sometimes cultivated.




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